Working parent

working parent is a parent who has a childcare provider. There are many structures within working families, working mothers or single, working fathers. There are also married parents who are dual-earners, in which both parents provide income. [1] Within these family structures, there is much about gender inequalities . Within the institution of gender, there are gender roles that society pins on both mothers and fathers that reflect in the home and at work. [2]

Motherhood penalty and fatherhood bonus

Main article: Motherhood penalty

Although women may be less able to employ men to pay for their salary demands, [3] women also face a challenge of defending rights as mothers in a working environment. [4] Men have the potential of earning high regard for being a working father. Hegemonic masculinity plays a role in determining a bonus. If you are looking for a place to live with a family, this is the place for you. [5] As such, more fathers are also offered paid paternity leave.

Working mothers

Nobel laureates and working mothers Marie Curie and her daughter Irène Joliot-Curie
Further information: Marriage bar , Parental leave , and Mommy track

The involvement of women in paid work and their variability by historical period, geographical region and social class. From the late 19th century to the 1970s, married women in some Western countries were restricted from working outside the home through marriage bars . For instance, in the Netherlands , the marriage bar was removed in 1957, [6] [7] [8] and in Ireland it was removed in 1973. [9] In some European countries, Their husbands up to a Few decades ago, for example in France up to 1965 [10] [11] and in Spainup to 1975. [12] After second wave of feminism made it possible for many women to be present in the work place, many mothers took advantage; According to the US Department of Labor, the increase of mothers in the workforce, with children under the age of 18, has risen to 70.6% in 2011. Mothers with younger children are less likely to work with those with older children. [13]

Although mothers have flourished in paid labor environments, they still face gender inequalities that affect their ability to maintain a healthy home-work life. This article is based on the results of a series of articles on the use of child labor in the workplace. One disadvantage that the working mothers face is a wage gap , [14] sometimes referred to as a ” motherhood penalty “. When women are hired, they are assumed to have more home life responsibilities that can interfer with their ability to do well at work. [15] Relating to their male counterparts, If women want to provide more for their family, they are to take on the masculine work ethic. That is, be more aggressive, and put work before your family. [14]An increase in work demands may alleviate the burden of economic decreases; However, this takes away the time needed to raise a family. With 66% of married women in a dual-income family, [16] That illustrates That percentage, ALTHOUGH Both Parents are economic providers for Their family, the women take on Both work and family Responsibilities due to society’s gender roles . Research shows that, consistent with utility maximization theory, women are not merely opting out of the workforce, But rather are not able to make a decision. [17]

In Europe, Ireland and the Netherlands have some of the strongest housewife traditions. In the early 1980s, the Commission of the European Communities postponement Women in the European Community , found que la Netherlands and Ireland HAD the lowest labor participation of married women and the MOST public disapproval of it. [18] In the Netherlands, from the 1990s onwards, the numbers of women entering the workplace have increased, but with most of the women working part time . [19] According to The Economist , in the Netherlands, had to fight in the World Wars of the 20th century, and so Dutch women did not experience working for women in other countries did. The wealth of the country, coupled with the fact that “[Dutch] politics was dominated by Christian values ​​until the 1980s. [20] In contrast to the mid-20th century Western Europe, Communist countries such as USSR and Mainland China . [21] In the US, after the feministmovement (accompanied by the civil rights movement against the racial discrimination and the Vietnam War ), there were 50% married women who kept working after they gave birth in 1978 in the USA; In 1997, the number was 61%. Increased numbers of housewives happened in the Bush in the 2000s. After the 2008 Financial Crisis , because of a low income in family income, women were working at home, they were 69% Married women who kept working after they had given birth in 2009 in the USA. [22] [23]

As more countries joined the European Union , and became subject to its directives , the policies regarding women’s labor rights had improved throughout Europe. Important guidelines include the Equality Framework Directive , the Pregnant Workers Directive , the Parental Leave Directive and the Directive 2002/73 / EC – equal treatment of 23 September 2002 amending Council Directive 76/207 / EEC on the implementation of the principle of equal treatment For vocational training and promotion, and working conditions . [24] [25] [26]

Mommy wars

The battle between working mothers and stay-at-home moms has been called “mommy wars”. Arguments center around the most effective use of one’s time in raising children. Leslie Morgan Steiner wrote that, as women struggle to come to terms with their own choices in parenting against society’s standards, they engage in that warfare that does not to self-acceptance, acceptance of others or balance within their individual lives. [27] ”

Research studies

The Harvard Business Review and the Pew Research Center have both reported the results of a study that suggests that mothers are the sole or primary source of income in about 40 percent of US households with children. The equivalent statistic in 1960 was 11 percent. [28] [29]


  1. Jump up^ “Understanding Family Structures and Dynamics” . Michael Meyerhoff, EDD . Retrieved 2011-03-01 .
  2. Jump up^ Percheski, Christine (2008). “‘Family Structure and the Reproduction of Inequalities'”. Annual Review of Sociology . 34(1): 257-276. Doi : 10.1146 / annurev.soc.34.040507.134549 .
  3. Jump up^ Koch, K (2000). ” ‘ Fatherhood Movement ‘ “. 10 : 473-496.
  4. Jump up^ Correll, Benard, Paik (2007). ” ‘ Getting a Job: Is There a Motherhood Penalty? ‘ “. American Journal of Sociology . 112 (5): 1297-1338. Doi : 10.1086 / 511799 .
  5. Jump up^ Hodges, Budig (2010). ” ‘ Who Gets the Daddy Bonus? Organizational Hegemonic Masculinity and the Impact of Fatherhood on Earnings ‘ “. Gender & Society . 24 (6): 717-745. Doi : 10.1177 / 0891243210386729 .
  6. Jump up^ The Economics of Imperfect Labor Markets: Second Edition, by Tito Boeri, Jan van Ours, pp. 105
  7. Jump up^ Dutch gender and LGBT-equality policy, 2013-16
  8. Jump up^ 2015 Review BPFA Report of the Netherlands Government
  9. Jump up^ Women of Ireland: Change Toward Social and Political Equality in the 21st Century Irish Republicby Rachel A. Patterson
  10. Jump up^ Guillaumin, Colette (1994). Racism, Sexism, Power, and Ideology . pp. 193-195.
  11. Jump up^ Meltzer, Françoise (1995). Hot Property: The Stakes and Claims of Literary Originality . p. 88.
  12. Jump up^
  13. Jump up^ “Employment Characteristics of Families Summary” . US Department of Labor . Retrieved 2011-10-22 .
  14. ^ Jump up to:a b Acker, Joan (2006). “‘Inequality Regimes'”. Gender & Society. 20 (4): 441-464. Doi : 10.1177 / 0891243206289499 .
  15. Jump up^ Milkie, Melissa (2009). ” ‘ Taking on the Second Shift: Time Allocations and Time Pressures of US Parents with Preschoolers'”. Social Forces . 88 (2): 487-518. Doi : 10.1353 / sof.0.0268 .
  16. Jump up^ “Working Mothers in the Great Recession” . Carolyn B. Maloney . Retrieved 2011-02-16 .
  17. Jump up^ Working with Children? The Probability of Mothers Exiting the Workforce at Time of Birth , Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta, February 2008
  18. Jump up^ it is in the Netherlands (17.6%) and in Ireland (13.6%) that we have the smallest numbers of married women working and the least acceptance of this phenomenon by the general public “. (Pg 14). [1]
  19. Jump up^ “Archived copy” (PDF) . Archived from the original (PDF) on March 4, 2016 . Retrieved April 4, 2016 .
  20. Jump up^
  21. Jump up^ In the kitchen debate in 1959: Nixon says American housewives are happier than Soviet Union working women
  22. Jump up^ Employment Characteristics of Families Summary. “US Department of Labor Retrieved 2011-10-22.
  23. Jump up^ a Chinese-English translation web (译言网): Will Chinese women rule the world?
  24. Jump up^
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  26. Jump up^
  27. Jump up^ “Leslie Morgan Steiner” . Retrieved 2011-03-02 .
  28. Jump up^ John Gerzema,”” Feminine “Values ​​Can Give Tomorrow’s Edge Leaders”, ” Harvard Business Review ” Blog, August 12, 2013. Retrieved August 13, 2013.
  29. Jump up^ Wendy Wang, Kim Parker and Paul Taylor,”Breadwinner Moms,”Pew Research Social & Demographic Trends website, May 29, 2013. Retrieved August 13, 2013.

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