Terrence Malick

Terrence Frederick Malick ( / m æ s ɪ k / ; born November 30, 1943) [1] is an American movie director, screenwriter and producer.

Malick Began His career as share of the New Hollywood movie-making wave with the film Badlands (1973), about a murderous pair on the run in the American Badlands and Days of Heaven (1978) [2] qui detailed the love- Triangle between two laborers and a wealthy farmer, before a lengthy hiatus. He returned to directing with film Such As The Thin Red Line (1998) and The Tree of Life (2011), being white Awarded the Golden Bear at the 49th Berlin International Film Festival and the Palme d’Or at the 64th Cannes Film Festival , respectivement .

Malick’s films have been noted for exploring themes such as individual transcendence , nature, and conflicts between reason and instinct. They are typically marked by broad philosophical and spiritual overtones and the use of meditative voice-overs from individual characters. The stylistic elements of the director’s work are inspired by scholars and audiences; Some of which have been written for their cinematography and aesthetics.

Early life

Terrence Malick was born in Ottawa, Illinois . [3] [4] He is the son of Irene (née Thompson, 1912-2011) [5] and Emil A. Malick (1917-2013), [6] a geologist. [7] His paternal grandparents were Assyrian Christian immigrants from Lebanon [8] [9] and Urmia , in what is now modern day Iran . [7] [10] [11] Malick attended St. Stephen’s Episcopal School in Austin, Texas , while his family lived in Bartlesville, Oklahoma . [12] Malick had two younger brothers: Chris and Larry. Larry Malick was a guitarist who went to study in Spain with Andrés Segovia in the late 1960s. In 1968, Larry intentionally broke his own hands due to pressure over his musical studies citation needed ] . Their father Emil went to Spain to help Larry, but his died shortly after, apparently committing suicide. [13] The early death of Malick’s younger brother has been explored and referenced in his films The Tree of Life (2011) and Knight of Cups (2015). [14] [15] Larry intentionally broke his own hands due to pressure over his musical studies [ citation needed ] . Their father Emil went to Spain to help Larry, but his died shortly after, apparently committing suicide. [13] The early death of Malick’s younger brother has been explored and referenced in his films The Tree of Life (2011) and Knight of Cups (2015). [14] [15] Larry intentionally broke his own hands due to pressure over his musical studies [ citation needed ] . Their father Emil went to Spain to help Larry, but his died shortly after, apparently committing suicide. [13] The early death of Malick’s younger brother has been explored and referenced in his films The Tree of Life (2011) and Knight of Cups (2015). [14] [15] S younger brother has been explored and referenced in his films The Tree of Life (2011) and Knight of Cups (2015). [14] [15] S younger brother has been explored and referenced in his films The Tree of Life (2011) and Knight of Cups (2015). [14] [15]

Malick received an AB in Philosophy from Harvard College , graduating summa cum laude and Phi Beta Kappa in 1965. He did graduate work at Magdalen College , Oxford , as a Rhodes Scholar . After a disagreement with his advisor, Gilbert Ryle , over his thesis on the concept of world in Kierkegaard , Heidegger , and Wittgenstein , Malick left Oxford without a degree. [16] In 1969, Northwestern University Press published Malick’s translation of Heidegger ‘

After returning to the United States, Malick taught philosophy at Massachusetts Institute of Technology while freelancing as a journalist. He wrote articles for Newsweek , The New Yorker , and Life . [17]

Film career

Early career

Malick started his film career after earning an MFA from the AFI Conservatory in 1969, directing the short film Lanton Mills . At the AFI, he Established contacts with celebrities Such As actor Jack Nicholson , longtime collaborator Jack Fisk , and agent Mike Medavoy , Malick Who procured for freelance work revising scripts . He wrote early uncredited drafts of Dirty Harry (1971) and Drive, He Said (1971), and was credited with the screenplay for Pocket Money (1972). [18] Malick was also co-writer of The Gravy Train (1974), under the pseudonym David Whitney.



Malick during production of Badlands (1973)

Malick’s first feature-length work as a director was Badlands , an independent movie starring Martin Sheen and Sissy Spacek as a young couple on a crime spree in the Midwest 1950s. It was influenced by the crimes of convicted teenage spree killer Charles Starkweather . Malick is a non-profit organization with a strong reputation in the world. The rest was raised by executive producer Edward R. Pressman . [19] [20] After a troubled production that included many crew members leaving halfway through the shoot, Badlandsdrew raves at its premiere at the New York Film Festival . As a result, Warner Bros. Bought distribution rights for three times its budget. [21]

Days of Heaven 

Malick’s production of Days of Heaven (1978)

Malick’s second film was the Paramount -produced Days of Heaven , about a love triangle that develops in the Texas Country Panhandle in the early 20th century. Production began in the fall of 1976 in Alberta, Canada . The film was mostly shot during the magic hour , with natural light. Much like Malick’s first feature, Days of Heaven had a lengthy and disturbing production, with several members of the production crew. [22] The film likewise had a troubled post-production phase, As Billy Weber and Malick spent two years editing, during which they experimented with unconventional editing and voice-over techniques once they realized the picture they had set out to make would not fully work. [23]

Days of Heaven was finally released in 1978 to mostly positive, though not unanimously positive, responses from critics. [24] [25] Its cinematography was widely praised, but somehow its lackluster story. [26] [27] In The New York Times , Harold C. Schonberg wrote that it is an intolerably artistic and artificial film. [28] However, it later won the Academy Award for Best Cinematography and the prize for Best Director at the 1979 Cannes Film Festival . Days of Heaven has grown in stature, [29] having been voted one of the 50 greatest American films ever made in a 2015 critics’ poll published by BBC . [30]


Following the release of Days of Heaven , Malick began developing a project for Paramount, titled Q , which explored the origins of life on earth. During pre-production, he suddenly moved to Paris and disappeared from public view for years. [31] During this time, he wrote a number of screenplays, including The English Speaker , about Josef Breuer ‘s analysis of Anna O .; adaptations of Walker Percy ‘s novel The Moviegoer and Larry McMurtry ‘s The Desert Rose ; [31] a script about Jerry Lee Lewis ; And a stage adaptation of the Japanese film Sansho the Bailiff which was to be directed by Polish filmmaker Andrzej Wajda , in addition to continuing work on the Q script. [32] ALTHOUGH QHAS never been made, Malick’s work for the project Provided material for later His movie The Tree of Life [33] and est devenu Eventually the basis for Voyage of Time . Jack Fisk, a longtime production designer on the director’s films, said that Malick was shooting film during this time as well. [34] [32] ALTHOUGH Q HAS never been made, Malick’s work for the project Provided material for later His movie The Tree of Life [33] and est devenu Eventually the basis for Voyage of Time . Jack Fisk, a longtime production designer on the director’s films, said that Malick was shooting film during this time as well. [34] [32] ALTHOUGH Q HAS never been made, Malick’s work for the project Provided material for later His movie The Tree of Life [33] and est devenu Eventually the basis for Voyage of Time . Jack Fisk, a longtime production designer on the director’s films, said that Malick was shooting film during this time as well. [34]

Return to cinema

The Thin Red Line 

Malick returned to directing with The Thin Red Line , a work released two decades after his previous film. A loose adaptation of James Jones’ World War II novel of the same name , it features a wide cast including Sean Penn , Adrien Brody , and George Clooney . Filming took place predominantly in the Daintree Rainforest in Queensland, Australia , and the Solomon Islands . [35]

The film received strongly positive reviews from critics, [36] [37] was nominated for seven Academy Awards , and won the Golden Bear at the 49th Berlin International Film Festival . [38] The Thin Red Line has been ranked among the best films of the 1990s in Complex , [39] The AV Club , [40] Slant , [41] Paste , [42] and Film Comment . [43]

The New World 

After learning of Malick’s work on an article about Che Guevara during the 1960s, Steven Soderbergh offered Malicio the chance to write and direct a film about Guevara that he had been developing with Benicio del Toro . Malick accepted and produced a screenplay focused on Guevara’s failed revolution in Bolivia . [44] After a year and a half, the financing HAD not come together Entirely, and Malick Was Given the opportunity to live The New World , [45] a script He Had Begun Developing in the 1970s. [46] He left the Guevara project in March 2004, [45] and Soderbergh took over as director, Leading to the film Che (2008). The New World , which featured a romantic interpretation of the story of John Smith and Pocahontas in the Virginia Colony, was released in 2005. Over one million feet of film were shot, and three different cuts of varying lengths were released.

While the film was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Cinematography , critical reception was divided throughout its theatrical run; Many praised its visuals and acting while finding its narrative unfocused. [47]However, the New World was later named by its critics as one of the best films of its decade, [48] and appeared in 39th place on a 2016 BBC poll of the greatest films since 2000. [49]


Malick at the Cannes Film Festivalpremiere of The Tree of Life

The Tree of Life 

Malick’s fifth feature, The Tree of Life , was filmed in Smithville, Texas , and elsewhere during 2008. Starring Brad Pitt , Jessica Chastain , and Sean Penn , it is a family drama spanning multiple time periods; It focuses on an individual’s struggle to reconcile love, mercy and beauty with the existence of illness, suffering and death. It premiered at the 2011 Cannes Film Festival , [50] where it won the Palme d’Or . Reviews after its Cannes premiere, however, were mixed; Many critics felt it had commendable qualities but found it cumbersome and overindulgent as a film. [51] It later won the FIPRESCI Award for the Best Film of the Year. At the 84th Academy Awards , he was nominated for three awards, including the Academy Award for Best Picture , Best Director for Malick, and Best Cinematography for Emmanuel Lubezki . A limited theatrical release in the United States began on May 27, 2011. citation needed ] And Best Cinematography for Emmanuel Lubezki . A limited theatrical release in the United States began on May 27, 2011. citation needed ] And Best Cinematography for Emmanuel Lubezki . A limited theatrical release in the United States began on May 27, 2011. citation needed ]

Over time, The Tree of Life ‘ s critical standing Improved; Malick scholars Christopher B. Barnett and Clark J. Elliston wrote that it became “arguably [Malick’s] most acclaimed work.” [52] It was voted the 79th greatest American film of all time in a 2015 BBC Culture poll of 62 international film critics. [53] The work was also ranked the seventh-greatest film since 2000 in a worldwide critics’ poll by BBC. [49]

To the Wonder 

Malick’s sixth feature, To the Wonder , [54] was shot predominantly in Bartlesville, Oklahoma ; A few scenes were filmed in Pawhuska, Oklahoma and at the Tulsa Port of Catoosa. [55] The movie stars Ben Affleck , Rachel McAdams , Olga Kurylenko , and Javier Bardem . [56]

To the Wonder had its world premiere at the 69th Venice International Film Festival on September 2, 2012, and opened theatrically in the United States on April 12, 2013. Critical response to the film was markedly divided, Arguably [Malick’s] most derided “. [52]

Knight of Songs and Songs 

Malick and Christian Bale at Austin City Limits Filming for Song to Song , 2011

On November 1, 2011, Filmnation Entertainment announced international sales for Malick’s next two projects: Lawless (now titled Song to Song ) and Knight of Cups . Both feature large feature casts, with many of the actors crossing over into both films. The films were shot back-to-back in 2012, with Song to Song in Austin, Texas , and Knight of Cups in Los Angeles and Las Vegas . [57]

During the weekend of September 16, 2011, Malick and a small crew were seen filming Christian Bale and Haley Bennett at the Austin City Limits Music Festival as part of preliminary shooting for Song to Song . [58] Malick was also seen directing Ryan Gosling and Rooney Mara at the Fun Fun Fest on November 4, 2011. [58] [59]

Knight of Cups had its world premiere at the Berlin International Film Festival in February 2015, and was met with mixed reactions. [60] [61] [62] It was released in the United States on March 4, 2016, by Broad Green Pictures . [63]

Song to Song had its world premiere at South by Southwest on March 10, 2017, before being released theatrically in the United States on March 17, 2017, by Broad Green Pictures , and has been met with mixed reactions. [64] [65]

Voyage of Time 

Concurrent with these two features, Malick continued work on an IMAX documentary that examines the birth and death of the known universe, titled Voyage of Time . The Hollywood Reporter describes it as a celebration of the Earth, displaying the whole of time, from the birth of the universe to its final collapse. ” Malick is one of my greatest dreams. ” [66] The film features footage shot by Malick and collaborators over the years,

The Film Was released in two versions: a 40-minute IMAX release ( Voyage of Time: The IMAX Experience ) with narration by Brad Pitt , and a 90-minute feature-length version of ( Voyage of Time Life’s Journey ) with narration by Cate Blanchett . [67] The feature-length version had its world premiere on September 7, 2016 at the 73rd Venice International Film Festival . [68] The IMAX version of the film was released in IMAX on October 7, 2016, by IMAX Corporation and Broad Green Pictures . [69]


On June 23, 2016, reports emerged that Malick’s next film, Radegund , will depict the life of Austria’s Franz Jägerstätter , a conscientious objector during World War II, which was put to death at the age of 36 A martyr and beatified by the Catholic Church . Starring in the film as Jägerstätter is August Diehl , with Valerie Pachner as his wife Franziska Jägerstätter. [70]

The film was shot in Studio Babelsberg in Potsdam, Germany in the summer of 2016, and in parts of northern Italy, such as Brixen , South Tyrol , and the small mountain village of Sappada . [70] [71] The film is currently in post-production and set for a 2017 release. [72]

Speaking about the film in Q & A in Princeton, New Jersey , Malick Said That, Compared With His more recent films, with Radegund he had “repented and gone back to working with a much Tighter script.” [73]

Themes and style

Malick’s films have been reviewed for their philosophical themes. [74] According to film scholar Lloyd Michaels, the director’s primary themes include “the isolated individual’s desire for transcendence amidst established social institutions, the greatness and untouched beauty of nature, the competing claims of instinct and reason, and the lure of the open road “. [74] He named Days of Heaven as one of a group of acclaimed films from the 1970s that were intended to revolutionize the American epic film . Like The Godfather movies , 1975’s Nashville , and The Deer Hunter (1978), Michaels argued that the movie delves into ” Such as the writers Walt Whitman , Hart Crane , James Agee , and Herman Melville , in the sense that their “definitive writings” also did not sit comfortably or find universal favor in their own time “nonetheless leaned perpetually into the future, Pushing their readers forward to a new horizon of understanding “. [78]

Malick’s body of work has inspired polarizing opinions. According to Michaels, “few American directors have inspired such adulation and rejection with each successive film” as Malick. Michaels said that in all of American cinema, Malick is the filmmaker most frequently “granted genius status after creating such a discontinuous and limited body of work”. [75] Malick makes use of broad philosophical and spiritual overtones, as in the form of meditative voice-overs from individual characters. Some critics felt these elements made the films engaging and unique while others found them pretentious and gratuitous, particularly in his post-hiatus work. [79]Michaels believed the opinions Days of Heaven : The Continuous Dialogue of What to Execute, The Exquisite Lighting, Painterly Compositions, Dreamy Dissolves, and fluid camera movements, combined with the epic magnitude and elegiac tone, sufficiently compensate for the thinness of the tale, the two-dimensionality of the characters, and the resulting emotional detachment of the audience. ” [75] Reverse Shot journalist Chris Wisniewski looks at both ” Days of Heaven and The New World ” as “principally cinematic” in their aesthetic, Intimating narrative, emotional, and conceptual themes through the use of “image and sound” instead of “foregrounding dialogue, events or characters”. He highlighted Malick’s use of “rambling philosophical voiceovers, the placid images of nature, offering quiet contrast to the evil deeds of men, the stunning cinematography, often achieved with natural light; [80] [80] [80]

Personal life

While the common conception of Malick as a recluse is inaccurate, [81] [82] [83] he is nevertheless famously protective of his private life. [84] His contracts stipulate that his likeness may not be used for promotional purposes, and he routinely declines requests for interviews. [31] [85]

From 1970 to 1976, Malick was married to Jill Jakes. [86] His companion afterward in the late 1970s was director and screenwriter Michie Gleason. [86] In 1985 in France, he married [86] Michèle Marie Morette, [87] [88]whom he met in Paris in 1980; In 1996, Malick asked for a divorce, which was granted. [86] [88] Afterward he married Alexandra “Ecky” Wallace, his high-school sweetheart. [89] Malick’s semi-autobiographical film To the Wonder was inspired by his relationship with Morette and Wallace. [14] [90]

As of at least 2011, Malick resides in Austin, Texas . [91]


Main article: Terrence Malick filmography
  • Badlands (1973)
  • Days of Heaven (1978)
  • The Thin Red Line (1998)
  • The New World (2005)
  • The Tree of Life (2011)
  • To the Wonder (2012)
  • Knight of Cups (2015)
  • Travel of Time (2016)
  • Song to Song (2017)
  • Radegund (2017)

Awards and nominations

Main article: List of awards and nominations received by Terrence Malick

Malick has received three Academy Award nominations; Two for Best Director , for The Thin Red Line and The Tree of Life , and was nominated for Best Adapted Screenplay for the film. He was awarded the Golden Bearat the 49th Berlin International Film Festival for the Thin Red Line , and the Palme d’Or at the 64th Cannes Film Festival for The Tree of Life .



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  52. ^ Jump up to:a b Barnett, Christopher B .; Elliston, Clark J., eds. (2016). “Preface” . Theology and the Films of Terrence Malick . Routledge . ISBN  1317588274 . Retrieved January 30, 2017 . The New World encountered a split-reception on its release in 2005. And yet, the film has grown in stature with time … Malick followed The Tree of Life , arguably his most acclaimed film, with To the Wonder , Arguably his most derided one … It is too early, then, to analyze the reception of Knights of Cups , though early indications are that,
  53. Jump up^ “The 100 greatest American movies” . BBC. July 20, 2015.
  54. Jump up^ “To The Wonder rating” . Filmratings.com.
  55. Jump up^ Wells, Jeffrey (August 19, 2012). “Wonder Based on Malick’s Romantic Past” . Hollywood-elsewhere.com . Retrieved September 30, 2012 .
  56. Jump up^ Summers, Laura (October 5, 2010). ” ‘ Untitled’ Malick film is official, shooting in Bartlesville” . Tulsaworld.com . Retrieved January 2, 2011 .
  57. Jump up^ “FilmNation continues relationship with Terrence Malick on two new films” . FilmNation Entertainment . November 1, 2011 . Retrieved November 3, 2011 .
  58. ^ Jump up to:a b Jagernauth, Kevin (November 4, 2011). “Set Pics of Ryan Gosling & Rooney Mara Shooting Terrence Malick’s ‘Lawless ‘ “. IndieWIRE . Retrieved November 10, 2011 .
  59. Jump up^ “new Terrence Malick movie being filmed at Fun Fun Fest (Ryan Gosling included)” . Brooklyn Vegan . November 5, 2011 . Retrieved November 10, 2011 .
  60. Jump up^ Grant, Andrew (February 9, 2016). ” ” Awful! “Vs. Applause: Terrence Malick’s Knight of Cups | Filmmaker Magazine” . Filmmaker . Retrieved February 10, 2016 .
  61. Jump up^ Lines, Alex (November 19, 2015). “Knight of Cups: Look, But Do not Touch” . Film Inquiry . Retrieved February 10, 2016 .
  62. Jump up^ “Berlinale 2015: Malick, Dresen, Greenaway and German inCompetition ” . www.berlinale.de. December 15, 2014 . Retrieved January 30, 2017 .
  63. Jump up^ Towers, Andrea (July 23, 2015). “Terrence Malick’s Knight of Cups sets 2016 release date” . Entertainment Weekly . Retrieved January 30, 2017 .
  64. Jump up^ A. Lincoln, Ross (January 5, 2017). “Terrence Malick’s ‘Song To Song’ To Open SXSW 2017” . Deadline.com . Retrieved January 30, 2017 .
  65. Jump up^ Nordine, Michael (January 3, 2017). “‘Song to Song’ First Look: Terrence Malick’s Austin-Set Romantic Drama Lands New Title and Official Premise (Exclusive)” . Indiewire.com . Retrieved January 30, 2017 .
  66. Jump up^ “Terrence Malick’s ‘Journey Of Time’ Will Push The Boundaries Of Documentary Form | Tribeca” . Tribeca . Retrieved 2016-02-10 .
  67. Jump up^ Child, Ben (February 4, 2015). “Terrence Malick finally embarks on Travel of Time – twice” . Retrieved March 25, 2017 – via The Guardian.
  68. Jump up^ Tartaglione, Nancy (July 28, 2016). “Venice Film Festival: Lido To Launch Pics From Ford, Gibson, Malick & More As Season Starts To Buzz – Full List” . Retrieved March 25, 2017 .
  69. Jump up^ “IMAX Corporation Reports First-Quarter 2016 Financial Results Highlights” . Retrieved March 25, 2017 .
  70. ^ Jump up to:a b “Terrence Malick Announces Next Film ‘Radegund,’ Based on the Life of Franz Jägerstätter . The Film Stage . Retrieved June 23, 2016 .
  71. Jump up^ “Trailer For ‘The Thin Red Line’ Restoration Arrives as Terrence Malick Commences ‘Radegund’ Shoot” . August 11, 2016 . Retrieved March 25, 2017 .
  72. Jump up^ Hopewell, John (February 10, 2017). “Berlinale: Mister Smith Sells Terrence Malick’s ‘Radegund’ to UGC for France (EXCLUSIVE)” . Retrieved March 25, 2017 .
  73. Jump up^ Bruno, Christopher (October 27, 2016). “Terrence Malick talks filmmaking at a rare public speaking event” . Little White Lies . Retrieved December 5, 2016 .
  74. ^ Jump up to:a b Rybin, Steven (2012). “Introduction”. Terrence Malick and the Thought of Film . Rowman & Littlefield . p. xiv. ISBN  0739166751 .
  75. ^ Jump up to:a b c Michaels, Lloyd (2009). Terrance Malick . University of Illinois Press . pp. 1, 40-41. ISBN  0252075757 . Retrieved February 20, 2017 .
  76. Jump up^ Ebert, Roger (24 June 2011). “Badlands Movie Review & Film Summary (1973)” . RogerEbert.com . Ebert Digital LLC . Retrieved 11 July 2016 .
  77. Jump up^ Ebert, Roger (2 June 2011). “The Tree of Life Movie Review (2011)” . RogerEbert.com . Ebert Digital LLC . Retrieved 11 July2016 .
  78. Jump up^ Scott, AO”The Tree of Life (2011)”,The New York Times. Retrieved 25 September 2013.
  79. Jump up^ LaRocca, David (2014). The Philosophy of War Films . The University Press of Kentucky . p. 391. ISBN  0813145120 .
  80. Jump up^ Wisniewski, Chris. “A Stitch in Time”,Reverse Shot22. Retrieved 19 April 2011.
  81. Jump up^ Hornaday, Ann (June 2, 2011). “Ann Hornaday on Terrence Malick, ‘Tree of Life’ and the perils of author worship . ” The Washington Post . Retrieved October 23, 2016 .
  82. Jump up^ Nordine, Michael (May 12, 2013). “Hollywood Bigfoot: Terrence Malick and the 20-Year Hiatus That Was Not” . Los Angeles Review of Books . Retrieved October 23, 2016 .
  83. Jump up^ Thomson, David (September 1, 2011). “Is it possible to make the most beautiful movie ever made?” . The Guardian . Retrieved December 6, 2016 . “It was said in the press that he was disappeared, that he was a recluse who declined to become a public personality. I put him in the 90s and he turned out that was nothing reclusive about him.”
  84. Jump up^ “Rosy-Fingered Dawn – Terrence Malick” . Sky Arts . Skyarts.co.uk. January 10, 2010. Archived from the original on October 7, 2010 . Retrieved March 21, 2012 .
  85. Jump up^ Davenport, Hayes (December 15, 2005). “Alumni Watch: Terence Malick ’65” . The Harvard Crimson . Archived from the original on June 5, 2011 . Retrieved May 3, 2007 .
  86. ^ Jump up to:a b c d “Terrence Malick” . Turner Classic Movies . Retrieved June 24, 2011 .
  87. Jump up^ “Terrence Malick Michele Morella Williamson County Texas Marriage Record” . Mocavo.com . Retrieved June 22, 2014 .
  88. ^ Jump up to:a b Blackall, Luke (May 24, 2011). “The secret life of Terrence Malick” . The Independent . UK. Archived from the original on June 15, 2012 . Retrieved May 12, 2013 . Michele Morette, her late ex-wife of 13 years, revealed that while they were together she was not allowed into his office, and that he would rather buy her a copy of a book than her own.
  89. Jump up^ Penn, Nathaniel (May 1, 2011). “Badlands: An Oral History” . GQ . Retrieved May 23, 2014 .
  90. Jump up^ Corliss, Richard. “Terrence Malick’s To The Wonder: A Gush of Cosmic Rapture” . Time . Retrieved 2016-02-10 .
  91. Jump up^ Wood, Graeme (October 3, 2011). “Brave Thinkers 2011: Terrence Malick” . The Atlantic . Archived from the original on August 19, 2012 . Retrieved February 21, 2012 .

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