Recommendation letter

recommendation letter or letter of recommendation , Also Known As a letter of reference , reference letter or simply reference , is a document en qui the writer assesses the qualities, characteristics, and capabilities of the person being white recommended in terms of That individual’s Ability to perform A particular task or function. Letters of recommendation are Typically related to employment (Such a letter May aussi be called Expired year employment reference or job reference ), admission to institutions of Higher Education , or scholarship admissibilité.

References may also be required of companies seeking to win contracts, particularly in the fields of engineering, consultancy, industry and construction, and with regard to public procurement and tenders . Reference letters for organizations are used to assess their ability to deliver the required level of service.

Some applications, such as professional schools give applicants the choice to waive their right to view their letters or not. Usually, applicants are encouraged to waive their rights because if they do not, they are not confident in their recommenders.


The person providing a reference is called a referee . An employment reference is usually written by a co-workers, customers and vendors. [1] Teachers and professors often provide references for students who have taken their classes. [2] References for organizations in the past.


[3] The employment of the child

  • The employee’s duties and responsibilities
  • The duration of employment or tasks / responsibilities
  • The position relative to the author of the reference letter
  • The employee’s abilities, knowledge, creativity, intelligence
  • The employee’s qualifications (foreign languages, special skills)
  • The employee’s social attitude
  • The employee’s power of report
  • Reason (s) of employment termination
  • Some text with the actual recommendation itself (eg ‘I am unquivocally recommend … [name] as a … [function / role] and would be happy to hire him / her again’).


In some countries, elements of performance are evaluated using forms of expression, sometimes euphemistic . For example, in the German-language Arbeitszeugnis , the following terms are frequently used: [4]

  • Excellent = stets zu unserer vollsten Zufriedenheit erledigt (always done to our complete satisfaction)
  • Good = stets zu unserer vollen Zufriedenheit (always to our full satisfaction)
  • Satisfactory = zu unserer vollen Zufriedenheit (to our full satisfaction)
  • Adequate = zu unserer Zufriedenheit (to our satisfaction)
  • Poor = hat sich bemüht, den Anforderungen gerecht zu werden (has endeavored to meet the demands)

This language establishes itself as an unwritten code in the employment world. Its purpose was to give even weakly performing employees a letter of recommendation that does not sound negative. However, the euphemistically glazed-over descriptions are now codified and generally known, so that the original cryptic intent is no longer served. [5] Nonetheless, it is still standard to use this codified language.

Checking of references

Most potential employers will contact to get references before offering a job to a new employee. A survey by the Society for Human Resource Management (SHRM) found That eight out of ten resource professionals Said They Regularly conduct reference checks for professional (89%), executive (85%), administrative (84%) and technical (81%) positions. [6] Candidates are advised to ensure that they provide a suitable list of referrals to their new or prospective employers, and to contact them to ensure that they are able to provide a suitable reference. In some cases employers will contact a candidate for a referral.

Duty to provide a reference

Some employers may not be willing to provide reference letters because they may be worried about potential lawsuits. In this case, the employer may provide the job title, dates of employment and salary history for the employee. [1] Germany , Austria , Switzerland and Bulgaria are the only countries in Europe where employees can legally claim an employment reference, including the right to a correct, unambiguous and benevolent appraisal. [7]

While there is no common law duty to Provide a reference, [8] the Supreme Court of Canada HAS Held That’s refusal to do so May Constitute “conduct That is unfair or is in bad faith ” with respect to a wrongful dismissal, and THUS “Indicative of the type of conduct which ought to be compensated by way of an addition to the notice period .” [9] There is a duty of care to ensure that, when it is provided, it is a misleading impression, [10] as held by the House of Lords in Spring v Guardian Insurance plc . [11] If an employee goes beyond what he has to do, he or she may give inaccurate or misleading information, liability may arise in the areas of breach of status , negligent misstatement , deceit , defamation or malicious falsehood . [10] It does not matter what form the reference might take. [12] Defamation or malicious falsehood . [10] It does not matter what form the reference might take. [12] Defamation or malicious falsehood . [10] It does not matter what form the reference might take. [12]

In the United Kingdom, references received by year use from Reviews another person or organization Can Be Disclosed to the person about Whom They Are written under the subject access provisions of the Data Protection Act 1998 , aim some confidentiality considerations apply as to the identity of the person Giving the reference. [13] As a result, together with the duty of care under Spring , many organizations have issued guideline as to best practice to be undertaken by reference providers. [14] [15]

The duty of care has also been held to apply in non-reference situations, as noted in McKie v Swindon College . [16] In another case, the Court of Appeal of England and Wales has held that “a reference must not give an unfair or misleading impression overall, even if its discrete components are factually correct.” [17] HOWEVER, while a reference must be accurate and fair, it is not Necessary to report all material facts concernant an individual, [18] goal it can be argued That, if an Agreed reference Arising from a settlement agreement is misleadingly incomplete, The employee may be sued by a subsequent employer for breach of duty. [19] The Employment Appeal Tribunal , in an unfair dismissal , ruled that, in preparing a reference, it was not reasonable to provide details of complaints against an employee of which the employee was not aware. [20]

The Court of Appeal of the Court of Appeal of the United States of America and of the Court of Appeal of the United States of America. And fair way, which will be particularly important if this information would provide a misleading reference. [21]

In 2016. the Financial Conduct Authority and the Prudential Regulation Authority are issuing rules that will require the furnishing of references, before any approval or certification may be given by them, as well as the information that they must contain. [10] [22] [23]

See also

  • Character witness
  • Dago dazzler


  1. ^ Jump up to:a b Doyle, Alison. “References for employment” . Retrieved 2 May 2012 .
  2. Jump up^ “Requesting Letters of Recommendation” . PSY 301 . California State University Long Beach . Retrieved 5 April 2017 .
  3. Jump up^ Peter Häusermann:Arbeitszeugnisse – wahr, klar und fair. Tipps und Anregungen für verantwortungsbewusste Arbeitgeber. 6. Auflage. Spektramedia, Zürich 2008,ISBN 978-3-908244-08-0
  4. Jump up^ Günter Huber, Waltraud Müller:Das Arbeitszeugnis in Recht und Praxis. Rechtliche Grundlagen, Musterzeugnisse, Textbausteine, Zeugnisanalyse. 12. Auflage. Haufe, Freiburg / Breisgau, Berlin, Planegg bei München, Würzburg 2009,ISBN 978-3-448-09322-3
  5. Jump up^ Thorsten Knobbe, Mario Leis, Karsten Umnuß:Arbeitszeugnisse: Textbausteine ​​und Tätigkeitsbeschreibungen(dt./engl.). 5. Auflage. Haufe, Freiburg / Breisgau, Berlin, Planegg bei München, Würzburg 2010,ISBN 978-3-448-10118-8.
  6. Jump up^ Doyle, Alison. “References – Will They or Will not They?” . Retrieved 2 May 2012 .
  7. Jump up^ Heinz-Günther Dachrodt, Erich Ullmann:Zeugnisse lesen und verstehen. Formulierungen und ihre Bedeutung. ÖGB-Verlag Wien 2000,ISBN 3-7035-0809-4
  8. Jump up^ Lawton v BOC Transhield Ltd, [1987] 2 All ER 608
  9. Jump up^ Wallace v. United Grain Growers Ltd 1997 CanLII 332at para. 96-101, [1997] 3 SCR 701 (30 October 1997),Supreme Court(Canada), subsequently affirmed in Honda Canada Inc. v Keays 2008 SCC 39at para. 57, [2008] 2 SCR 362 (27 June 2008)
  10. ^ Jump up to:a b c “Regulatory references: are you ready?” . Eversheds . 28 January 2016 . Retrieved 13 February 2016 .
  11. Jump up^ Spring v Guardian Insurance plc [1994] UKHL 7, [1995] 2 AC 296 (7 July 1994)
  12. Jump up^ Byrnell v British Telecommunications & Anor 32 [2009] EWHC 727 (QB)at para. 29, 32 (20 February 2009)
  13. Jump up^ “Data Protection Good Practice Note: Subject access and employment references” (PDF) . Information Commissioner’s Office . 16 November 2005 . Retrieved 14 February 2016 .
  14. Jump up^ “Data Classification: Issue of Staff and Student References Advisory Note” (PDF) . . University of Stirling . January 2015.
  15. Jump up^ “Human Resources Policy No. HR70: Employment References”(PDF) . . Shrewsbury and Telford Hospital NHS Trust . December 2010.
  16. Jump up^ Salter, Michael; Bryden, Chris (24 June 2011). “Gone but not forgotten” . New Law Journal . 161 (7471). , DiscussingMcKie v Swindon College [2011] EWHC 469 (QB)(11 February 2011)
  17. Jump up^ Bartholomew v London Borough Of Hackney & Anor [1998] EWCA Civ 1604(23 October 1998)
  18. Jump up^ Cox v Sun Alliance Life Ltd [2001] EWCA Civ 649(May 9, 2001)
  19. Jump up^ Smith, Ian; Baker, Aaron (2015). Smith & Wood’s Employment Law (12th ed.). Oxford University Press . p. 163. ISBN  978-0-19-872735-4 .
  20. Jump up^ TSB Bank Plc v Harris [1999] UKEAT 1145_97_0112(1 December 1999)
  21. Jump up^ Jackson v Liverpool City Council [2011] EWCA Civ 1068(15 June 2011)
  22. Jump up^ “CP15 / 31: Strengthening accountability in banking and insurance: regulatory references” . Financial Conduct Authority. 6 October 2015.
  23. Jump up^ “Strengthening accountability in banking and insurance: regulatory references – CP36 / 15” . Prudential Regulation Authority . 6 October 2015.

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