Mentorship is a knowledgeable, knowledgeable and knowledgeable person. The mentor may be older or younger than the person being mentored, but he or she must have a certain area of ​​expertise. It is a learning and development partnership between someone with vast experience and someone who wants to learn. [1] Mentoring and Mentoring in the Mentoring Professionalism and the Mentoring of the Mentoring Profession. [2]

The person in receipt of mentorship May be Referred to as a protected (male) is protected (female), an apprentice or, in the 2000s, has mentee . The mentor May be Referred to as a godfather / godmother [3] [4] gold rabbi . [5] [6]

“Mentoring” is a process that always involves communication and is relationship-based, but its precise definition is elusive, [7] with more than 50 definitions currently in use. [8] One definition of the many things that have been proposed, is

Mentoring is a process for the informal transmission of knowledge, social capital , and the psychosocial support perceived by the recipient. Mentoring entails informal communication, usually face-to-face and during a sustained period of time, between a person who is perceived to have greater knowledge and wisdom, or experience Protected). ” [9]

Mentoring in Europe has existed since at least Ancient Greek times. Since the 1970s It has spread in the United States Mainly in training contexts, [10] significant with historical links to the movement Advancing workplace equity for women and minorities, [11] and it has-been Described as “an innovation in American management.” [12]


William Blake’s watercolor of “Age teaching youth”, a Romantic representation of mentorship. Blake is the author of the songs of Innocence . The Tate Britain [13]

The roots of the practice are lost in antiquity. The word itself was inspired by the character of Mentor in Homer ‘s Odyssey . Though the actual Mentor in the story is a somewhat ineffective old man, the goddess Athena takes on his appearance in order to guide young Telemachus in his time of difficulty.

Historically significant systems of mentorship include the guru-disciple tradition practiced in Hinduism and Buddhism , Elders , the discipleship system practiced by Rabbinical Judaism and the Christian church, and apprenticing under the medieval guild system.

In the United States, advocates for workplace equity in the second half of the twentieth century popularized the term “mentor” and the concept of career mentorship as share of a larger share capital lexicon-which aussi includes terms Such As glass ceiling , bamboo ceiling, [ 14] networking , role model , and gatekeeper -serving to identify and address barring non-dominant groups from professional success. Mainstream business literature, the role of a businessman in the management of the business. In 1970 the American vocabulary; By the mid-1990s they had become part of everyday speech. [11]

Professional bodies and qualifications

The European Mentoring and Coaching Council, also called the EMCC, is the leading global body in terms of creating and maintaining a range of industry-standard frameworks, rules and processes across the mentoring and related supervision and coaching fields. mentoring. [15] [16] [17]


The focus of mentoring is to develop the whole person and so the techniques are broad and require wisdom in order to be used appropriately. [18] A 1995 study of technical mentoring MOST Commonly used in business [19] found five que la MOST Commonly used technical Among mentors Were:

  1. Accompanying: a commitment in a caring way, which involves taking part in the learning process with the learner.
  2. Sowing: mentors are often confronted with the difficulty of preparing the learner before he or she is ready to change. Sowing is necessary when you know what you want to know and what to expect.
  3. Catalyzing: when change can reach a critical level of pressure, learning can escalate. Here the mentor chooses to plunge the learner right into change, provoking a different way of thinking, a change in identity or a re-ordering of values.
  4. Showing: This is a great way to make a difference. You show what you are talking about, you show by your own behavior.
  5. Harvesting: Here the mentor focuses on “picking the ripe fruit”: it is usually used to create awareness of what was learned by experience and to draw conclusions. The key questions here are: “What have you learned?”, “How useful is it?”.

Different techniques may be used by the mentors and the students of the study of the mentee, and the techniques used in modern organizations can be found in old education systems, from the Socratic technique of harvesting to the accompaniment method of learning used in the apprenticeship of Itinerant cathedral builders during the Middle Ages. [19] Leadership Authors Jim Kouzes and Barry Z. Posner [20] advise mentors to look for “teachable moments” in order to “expand or realize the potentialities of the people in the organizations they lead” and underline that personal credibility is as essential To quality mentoring as skill.

Multiple mentors : A new and upcoming trend is having multiple mentors. [21] This can be useful because we can all learn from each other. Having more than one mentor. There are different mentors who may have different strengths.

Profession or trade mentor : This is someone who is currently in the trade / profession you are entering. They know the trends, important changes and new practices that you should know to stay at the top of your career. A mentor like this would be able to discuss with you regarding the field, and also be introduced to key and important people that you should know.

Industry mentor : This is not a job. This mentor will be able to give insight on the industry as a whole. Whether it is research, development or key changes in the industry, you need to know.

Organization mentor : Politics in the organizations are constantly changing. It is important to be knowledgeable about the values, strategies and products that are within your company, but also those things are changing. An organization can clarify missions and strategies, and give clarity when needed.

Work process mentor : This mentor can speed quickly through the bumps, and cut through the unnecessary work. This mentor can explain the ‘ins and outs’ of projects, day to day tasks, and eliminate unnecessary things that may be going on in your work day. This mentor can help to get things done quickly and efficiently.

Technology mentor : This is an up-and-coming, incredibly important position. Technology has been rapidly improving, and becoming more and more. In order to perform your best, you must know how to get things done on the newest technology. A technology mentor will help with technical breakdowns, advise on systems that may work better than what you are currently using, and coach you through new technology and how to best use it and implement it into your daily life.

These mentors are only examples. There can be many different types of mentors. Look around your workplace, your life, and see who is an expert that you can learn something from. [1]


There are two broad types of mentoring relationships: formal and informal. Formal mentoring relationships are set up by an administrative unit or office in a company or organization, which solicits and recruits qualified individuals who are willing to mentor, provide training to the mentors, and then help to match the mentors with a person in need of mentoring. While formal mentoring systems contain structural and guidance elements, they still typically allow the mentor and mentee to have an active role in choosing who they want to work with. Formal mentoring programs which simply assign mentors to mentees. Even though a mentor and a mentee may seem perfectly matched “on paper”, in practice, they may have different working or learning styles. As such, And the mentee to the opportunity to help with a widely used approach. Informal mentoring, recruitment, mentor training and matching services. Informal mentoring arrangements can develop naturally from business networking situations in which a more experienced individual meets a new employee.

In addition to these broad types, there are also peer, situational and supervisory mentoring relationships. These tend to fall under the categories of formal and informal mentoring relationships. Informal relationships develop on their own between partners. Formal mentoring, on the other hand, refers to a structured process supported by the organization and addressed to target populations. Youth mentoring programs at-risk children or youth who lack role models and sponsors. In business, formal mentoring is part of talent management strategies which are used to groom key employees, newly hired graduates, high potential employees and future leaders. The matching of mentor and mentee is often done by a mentoring coordinator, often with the help of a computerized database registry.

There are formal mentoring programs that are focused on career development. Some mentorship programs provide both social and vocational support. In well-designed formal mentoring programs, there are program goals, schedules, training (for both mentors and protected), and evaluation. In 2004 Metizo created the first mentoring certification for companies and business schools in order to guarantee the integrity and effectiveness of formal mentoring. Certification is attributed jointly by the organization and an external expert. [22]

There are many kinds of mentoring relationships from school or community-based relationships to e-mentoring relationships. These mentoring relationships vary and can be influenced by the type of mentoring relationship that is in effect. That is what it means to be a formal or informal relationship. Also there are some models that have been used to describe and examine the sub-relationships that can emerge. For example, Buell describes how mentoring relationships can develop under a cloning model, nurturing model, friendship model and apprenticeship model. The cloning model is about the mentor trying to “produce a duplicate copy of him or her self.” The nurturing model takes more of a “parent figure, creating a safe, open environment in which mentee can both learn and try things for him-or herself.” The friendship model is more peers. ” Lastly, the apprenticeship is about the “personal or social aspects … and the professional relationship is the sole focus”. [23]

In the sub-groups of formal and informal mentoring relationships: peer mentoring relationships. However, one person may be more knowledgeable in a certain aspect or another, but they can help each other to progress in their work. A lot of time, peer relationships provide a lot of support, empathy and advice because the situations are quite similar.

Situational mentoring : Short-term relationships in which a person mentors for a specific purpose. This could be a company bringing an expert in social media, or internet safety. This expert can mentor employees to make them more knowledgeable about a specific topic or skill.

Supervisory mentoring : This kind of mentoring has’go to ‘people who are supervisors. These are people who have answers to many questions, and can advise to take the best plan of action. This can be a conflict of interest relationship because many supervisors do not feel comfortable also being a mentor. [24]

Mentoring circles : Participants from all levels of the organization propose and own a topic. They then meet in groups to discuss the topic, which motivates them to grow and become more knowledgeable. Flash mentoring is ideal for job shadowing, reverse mentoring, and more.

Flash mentoring : Creating a low-pressure environment for mentoring that focuses on single meetings rather than a traditional, long-term mentoring relationship. [25]


Meta-analysis of 112 individual research studies foundational, motivational, career-oriented, attitudinal, health-related. [26] Especially in the workplace, there are many benefits to developing a mentorship program for new and current employees.

Career development : Setting up a career development program for employees to help the junior employees to learn the skills and behaviors of senior employees. This type of mentoring program can help to align organizational goals with employees’ personal career goals (of progressing within the organization). It gives employees the ability to advance professionally and learn more about their work. This collaboration also gives employees a feeling of commitment with the organization, which can lead to better retention rates and increased employee satisfaction.

High potential mentoring : The most talented employees in organizations tend to be difficult to retain, as they are usually seeking greater challenges and responsibilities, and they are likely to leave for a different organization. Develop. Top talent, whether in innovation or management role, have incredible potential to make great things happen for an organization. Creating a mentoring program for high-potential employees that gives them one-on-one guidance from senior leaders can help build the commitment of these talented employees, give them the opportunity to develop, and increase their retention in the organization.

Diversity mentoring : One of the top ways to innovate is by bringing in new ideas from senior employees and leaders from underrepresented groups (eg, women, ethnic minorities, etc.). Who is an underrepresented group depends on the industry sector and country. In many Western countries, women and ethnic minorities are underrepresented in executive positions and boards of directors. In Some traditionally gender segregated occupations, Such As education and nursing , HOWEVER, women May be the dominant gender in the workforce. Mentors from underrepresented groups can empower employees from underrepresented groups to increase their confidence to take on higher-responsibility tasks and prepare for leadership roles. By developing employees from diverse groups, This article is available in English and French. This also brings cultural awareness and intercultural dialogue into the workplace.

Reverse mentoring : While mentoring typically involves a more experienced, typically older employee, the leading approach can also be used. In the 2000s, with the rise of digital innovations, Internet applications and social media , in some cases, new, young employees are more familiar with these technologies. The younger generations can help the growing generations to expand and grow to current trends. Everyone has something to bring to the table, this creates a “two way street” within companies where younger employees can see the larger picture, and senior employees can learn from young employees.

Knowledge transfer mentoring : Employees must have a certain set of skills in order to accomplish the tasks at hand. Mentoring is a great approach to help employees get organized, and give them access to an expert that can give feedback, and help answer questions that they may not know where to find answers to. [27]

Mentorship provides critical benefits to individuals as well as organizations. In the United States, it is important to note that in the United States, Until recent decades, American men in dominant ethnic groups gained most of the benefits of mentorship without consciously identifying it as an advancement strategy. American women and minorities, in contrast, more pointedly identified and pursued mentorship in the second half of the twentieth century as they sought to achieve the professional success they had long been denied. [11]

In a 1958 study, Margaret Cussler showed that, for each female executive she interviewed who did not own her own company, ” Cussler concluded that the relationship between the “sponsor and protégé” (the vocabulary of “mentorship”) was the “magic formula” for success. [28] By the late 1970s, numerous publications had established the centrality of mentorship to business success for everyone and particularly for women trying to break into the male-dominated business world. These publications, which include insider information, education, guidance, moral support, inspiration, sponsorship, an example to follow, Protection, promotion, the ability to “bypass the hierarchy,” the projection of the superior’s “reflected power,” access to otherwise invisible opportunities, and tutelage in corporate politics. [11]

This literature also shows the value of these benefits. A Harvard Business Review survey of 1,250 top executives published in 1979, for example, showed that most of them have been mentored or sponsored and who have received a higher education, a better education, a quicker path to achievement, and more job satisfaction Those who did not. [29] The literature is the most important of all. [11] For example, although women made up less than one percent of the executives in the Harvard Business Review , all of these women reported being mentored. [29] In subsequent decades, as mentoring became a widely valued phenomenon in the United States, Women and minorities in particular. [11]

Contemporary research and practice in the US

Research in the 1970s, partly in response to a study by Daniel Levinson , [30] led some women and African Americans to question whether the classic “white male” model was available or customary for people who are newcomers in traditionally white male organizations. In 1978 Edgar Schein described multiple roles for successful mentors. [31] [ clarification needed ]

Two of Schein’s students, Davis and Garrison, undertook to study successful leaders of both genders and at least two races. ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, Guardian, guru, inspiration, confrere, counsellor, developer of doors, Role model, pioneer, “seminal source”, “successful leader”, and teacher. [32] They described multiple mentoring practices which have been given the name of “mosaic mentoring” to distinguish this kind of mentoring from the single mentor approach.

Mosaic mentoring is based on the concept that almost everyone can perform one or another function well for someone else. The model is considered to be “non-traditional” in a traditional setting. The idea has been well received in medical education literature. [33] There are also mosaic mentoring programs in various faith-based organizations. Citation needed ]

Corporate programs

Corporate mentoring programs are used by mid-size organizations to further develop and retain employees. Mentoring programs may be formal or informal and serve a variety of specific objectives including acclimation of new employees, skills development, employee retention and diversity enhancement.

Formal programs

Formal mentoring programs offer employees the opportunity to participate in an organized mentoring program. Participants join as a mentor, protected or both by completing a mentoring profile. Mentoring profiles have been completed as written forms on paper or computer or filled out via an online form as part of an online mentoring system. Protégés are matched with a mentor by a program administrator or a mentoring committee, or may self-select a mentor on the program.

Informal mentoring takes place in organizations that develop a culture of mentoring but do not have formal mentoring in place. These companies may provide some tools and resources and encourage managers to accept mentoring requests from more junior members of the organization. [34]

A study of 1,162 employees found that “satisfaction with a mentoring relationship had a formal or informal mentoring relationship, or the design of a formal mentoring program.” [35]So, when a mentoring relationship is established, the actual relationship is more important than the presence of a relationship.

New-hire programs

New-hire mentoring programs are set up to help new employees acclimate more quickly into the organization. In new-hiring mentoring programs, newcomers to the organization are protected from being paired with more experienced people (mentors) in order to obtain information, good examples, and advice as they advance. It has been claimed that new employees who are paired with a mentor are twice as likely to remain in their job as those who do not receive mentorship. [36]

These mentoring relationships provide substance for career growth, and provide both the mentor and the protected. For example, the mentor gets to show leadership by giving back and even being refreshed about their own work. The organization receives an employee who is gradually introduced and shaped by the organization’s culture and operation because they have been under the mentorship of an experienced member. The person being mentored networks, becomes integrated in an organization, gets experience and advice along the way. [37] It has been said that “joining a mentor’s network and developing one’s own is central to advancement” and this is possibly why those mentored tend to do well in their organizations. [37]

In the organizational setting, mentoring usually requires a knowledge, [9] but the process of mentorship can differ. Bullis describes the mentoring process in the forms of phase models. Initially, the “mentee proves himself or herself worthy of the mentor’s time and energy”. Then cultivation, which includes the actual “coaching … a strong interpersonal bond between mentor and mentee develops”. Next, under the phase of separation “the mentee experiences more autonomy”. Ultimately, there is more of equality in the relationship, termed by Bullis as Redefinition. [38]

High-potential programs

High-potential mentoring programs are used to groom up-and-coming employees deemed to have the potential to move into leadership or executive roles. Here the employee (protected) is paired with a senior-level leader (leading gold) for a series of career – coaching interactions. These programs tend to be a little more general and mentored programs and mentees must be based on a list of eligibility criteria to participate. (Eg, human resources, sales, operations management, etc.) all for short periods of time, so they can learn in a “Hands-on”, practical fashion, about the organization’s structure, culture, and methods.

Matching approaches

Matching by committee

Mentees are mentored by a mentoring committee or mentoring administrator. The matching committee reviews the mentors’ profiles and the coaching goals.

Matching through self-match technology

Mentoring technology, which can be used to facilitate the matching of research and development projects. This mentee-driven methodology increases the speed of the program. [39] The quality of matches increases as well as self-match programs because the greater the involvement of the mentee in the selection of their mentor, the better the outcome of the mentorship. [40] There are a variety of mentee-driven matching processes available.

Speed ​​mentoring

Speed ​​mentoring follows some of the procedures of speed dating . Mentors and mentees are open to each other in short sessions, allowing each person to meet multiple potential matches in a very short timeframe. Speed ​​mentoring is a one-time event in order for people to come to terms with a commitment. ” [41]

In education

Main article: Peer mentoring

In many secondary and post-secondary schools, mentorship programs are offered to support students in program completion, confidence building and transitioning to further education or the workforce. There are also peer mentoring programs designed specifically to bring under-represented populations into science and engineering. Citation needed ] The Internet has brought university alumni closer to graduating students. Graduate university alumni are engaging with current questions and answers. The students with the best answers receive professional recommendations from industry experts build a more credible CV.

Instructional coaches

Instructional coaches are trained and trained in the training of teachers. [42] In her book The Art of Coaching , Elena Aguilar recommends that a coach “must have been an effective teacher for at least five years.” [42]Though skills in the classroom are a must, the coach must also be confident in working with adults, bringing strong listening, communication, and data analysis skills to the coaching position. [42] Ultimately, an instructional coach is a teacher who was successful in the classroom and is respected in the field, With the respect carrying over into this new position. [43]


Coaches are looking for a one-to-one coach or coach. [43] According To Melinda Mangin and KaiLonnie Dunsmore, instructional coaching models May include “cognitive coaching, clinical supervision, peer coaching and mentoring, formal literacy coaching, informal coaching, gold mixed model. [44] Other Researchers-have Described categories of Coaching, coaching, coaching, coaching and coaching. [45] [46] Ultimately, coaching roles are designed to increase teacher capacity and improve teacher learning through learning opportunities. [46] The practice of instructional coaching is embedded within a teacher’s teaching, not in isolation from their everyday teaching. In other words, the coach works with the teacher during the school year and meets during the school day. The discussions between the teacher and coach are based on mutual respect and trusting relationship through confidentiality. [43] Overall, instructional coaching is meant to serve as professional development for the teacher (s). [43] The coach works with the teacher during the school year and meets during the school day. The discussions between the teacher and coach are based on mutual respect and trusting relationship through confidentiality. [43] Overall, instructional coaching is meant to serve as professional development for the teacher (s). [43] The coach works with the teacher during the school year and meets during the school day. The discussions between the teacher and coach are based on mutual respect and trusting relationship through confidentiality. [43] Overall, instructional coaching is meant to serve as professional development for the teacher (s). [43] Instructional coaching is a professional development for the teacher (s). [43] Instructional coaching is a professional development for the teacher (s). [43]

A coach’s main responsibility for the training and development of new skills, programs and initiatives with the teacher. [46] This professional development can come through discussion, but also can come in other forms. Instructional coaches can model lessons and instructional strategies in the teachers’ classroom. [47] Teacher observations are one of the most powerful ways that coaches can put data for change in front of teachers. Coaches doing observations and collecting data to debrief with teachers. [47]


According to a three-year research study done by the Pennsylvania Institute for Instructional Coaching, there was increase in student success when instructional coaching was used in the classroom. This, however, could not be viewed as solely “instructional coaching” in isolation from other factors. [48] The coaching “model emphasize [d] the simultaneous use of four strategies: one-on-one teacher commitment, evidence-based literacy practices applied across the curriculum, data analysis and reflection on practice.” [48] Yet, teachers have shared that:

  • Ninety-one percent of teachers coachee said coaches helped them understand and use new teaching strategies.
  • Seventy-nine percent of teachers coached regularly in their classroom instruction and practice.
  • Teachers who were regularly coached one-on-one reported that:
    • They made significant changes in their instructional practice.
    • Their students were more engaged in the classroom and enthusiastic about learning.
    • Attendance increased dramatically in their classes. [43]

In addition to this, the most effective professional development model is thought to involve follow-up activities, usually in the form of long-term support, coaching in teachers’ classrooms, or ongoing interaction with colleagues. [49] In most cases, instructional coaching can provide this support and meet this definition of effective professional development.

Administrative support

There should also be support from administration around the instructional coaching to align the work of the coach and teacher with the school’s mission or vision. [42] Knight focuses on the core of successful coaching. Knight explains that the principal and the instructional coach need to be aligned in their goals for the coaching occurring. [47] If they have differing desired outcomes for teaching, then the teacher will be receiving mixed messages and caught between improvement and a standstill. [42] Aguilar suggests that coaches continually ask about the school’s goals. [42]

Data-driven strategies

In conjunction with this partnership and observations, Knight’s belief of data usage is critical for teacher training during coaching sessions. Knight shares and how to give a teacher and how to improve the learning of the teacher. Instead, the data needs to tell a story for the teacher to determine moves to try to improve. This allows ownership of the work in conjunction with the work. [47]

Relationship building

The relationships and trust between the coach and coachee are a critical component of coaching. [42] [47] A coach having specific content knowledge and respect in a teacher’s field of teaching would help build trust. Another way to build this trust is through confidentiality. By keeping all conversations confidential and sticking to that, the coachee knows that your word is good. In addition to relationship building, it is important to let the coachee feel comfortable talking to you about anything-there may be a time when they are facing a trumps conversation about the lesson. [42] Starting a coaching conversation about how life is going for a coachee is also important to relationship building.

Content and pedagogical knowledge

According to Nelson and Sassi, “knowledge of pedagogical process and content knowledge must be fused” in both teaching and observing teaching. [50] For example, an instructional coach who is working with a math teacher should know “current mathematics education reforms are built on the notion that the ideas in a subject, and the ways in which students and teachers work with the ideas, matter . ” [50] [51 [1 [2 [2 [2 [2 [2 [2 [2 [edit] Translations to be translated into English.

Knowledge that coaches need to be effective span just content and pedagogical knowledge. Aguilar uses the ladder of inference to allow coaches to evaluate their own thoughts, and ultimately use this ladder to help principals and teachers evaluate their own beliefs before jumping to assumptions. Aguilar states that her “list of beliefs has changed over the years. Beliefs can change about approaches to teaching, classroom management, or even content knowledge. [42]

Blended mentoring

The blended mentoring is a mix of on-site and online events, projected to give career counseling and development services the opportunity to adopt mentoring in their ordinary practice.

Reverse mentoring

In the reverse mentoring situation, the mentee has the overall experience (typically as a result of age), but the mentee has more knowledge in a particular area, and as such, reverses the typical constellation. Examples are when young internet or mobile savvy millennial generation teens train executives in using their high end smartphones . They in turn offer insight into business processes.

Business mentoring

The concept of mentoring has entered the business domain as well. This is different from being an apprentice ; A business entrepreneur on the entrepreneur’s business. Citation needed ] An apprentice learns a trade by working on the job with the “employ”.

A EPS-PEAKS study on the practice of business mentoring, with a focus on the Middle East and North Africa region . [52] The review found that, in order to make a good business case for the entrepreneur, it is important to have a good career. Formal and informal approach and to appropriately match mentors and mentees.

See also

  • Big Brothers Big Sisters of America
  • coaching
  • eMentors
  • Father complex
  • Maybach Foundation
  • New Teacher Center
  • Peer mentoring
  • Speed ​​networking
  • Youth mentoring
  • Workplace mentoring


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  20. Jump up^ Posner, B. & Kouzes, J. (1993). Credibility . San Francisco: Jossey Bass. p. 155.
  21. Jump up^ Ensher, E .; Heun, C .; Blanchard, A., “Online management and computer-mediated communication: New directions in research”. Journal of Vocational Behavior . 63 : 264-288.
  22. Jump up^ “How Metizo certified personal development” . Metizo.
  23. Jump up^ Buell, Cindy (January 2004). “Models of Mentoring in Communication”. Communication Review . 53 (1): 56-73. ISSN  1479-5795 . Doi : 10.1080 / 0363452032000135779 .
  24. Jump up^, Washington University in St. Louis.
  25. Jump up^, Chronus.
  26. Jump up^ Eby, Lillian; Allen, Tammy; Evans, Sarah; Ng, Thomas; DuBois, David (2008). “A multidisciplinary meta-analysis comparing mentored and non-mentored individuals”. Journal of Vocational Behavior . 72 : 254-267. Doi : 10.1016 / j.jvb.2007.04.005 .
  27. Jump up^ Chronus. “Mentoring & Talent Development Solutions” . .
  28. Jump up^ Cussler, Margaret (1958). The Woman Executive . New York: Harcourt, Brace and Co.
  29. ^ Jump up to:a b Roche, Gerard R. (January-February 1979). “Much Ado about Mentors”. Harvard Business Review . 57 : 14-28.
  30. Jump up^ Levinson, Daniel S .; Darrow, C. N .; Klein, EB; Levinson, M. (1978). Seasons of a Man’s Life . New York: Random House. ISBN  0-394-40694-X .
  31. Jump up^ Schein, Edgar H. (June 1978). Career Dynamics: Matching Individual and Organizational Needs . Addison-Wesley. ISBN  0-201-06834-6 .
  32. Jump up^ Davis, Jr., Robert L .; Garrison, Patricia A. (1979). Mentoring: in search of a typology (MIT Sloan Master Thesis) .
  33. Jump up^ Periyakoil, Vyjeyanthi S. (October 2007). “Journal of Palliative Medicine”. Journal of Palliative Medicine . 10 (5): 1048-1049. PMID  17985959 . Doi : 10.1089 / jpm.2006.9911 .
  34. Jump up^ [1],SmartBlog on Leadership, 13 April 2012
  35. Jump up^ Ragins, Belle Rose, John L. Cotton, and Janice S. Miller. “Marginal Mentoring: The Effects of Type of Mentor, Quality of Relationship, and Program Design on Work and Career Attitudes.” Academy of Management Journal 43, no. 6 (2000): 1177-1194.
  36. Jump up^ Kaye, Beverly; Jordan-Evans, Sharon (2005). Love ‘Em or Lose Em: Getting Good People to Stay . San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler Publishers, Inc. p. 117. ISBN  978-1-57675-327-9 .
  37. ^ Jump up to:a b Pompper, D .; Adams, J. (2006). “Under the microscope: Gender and mentor-protege relationships”. Public Relations Review . Science Direct (32): 309-315.
  38. Jump up^ Bullis, C .; Bach, WB (1989). “Are mentor relationships helping organizations?” An exploration of developing mentee-mentor-organizational identification using turning point analysis “. Communication Quarterly . 37 (3): 199-213. Doi : 10.1080 / 01463378909385540 .
  39. Jump up^ [2],Matchmaker, Matchmaker Make Me a Mentor Match, Workforce Magazine, 16 May 2012
  40. Jump up^ Allen, TD .; Eby, LT .; Lentz, E (2006). “Mentoring behaviors and mentoring with formal mentoring programs: closing the gap between research and practice”. Journal of Applied Psychology . 91 (3): 567-578. PMID  16737355 . Doi : 10.1037 / 0021-9010.91.3.567 .
  41. Jump up^
  42. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e f g h i Aguilar, Elena (2013). The art of coaching: effective strategies for school transformation . San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
  43. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e Dupree, Orlena. “What is an Instructional Coach?” . . Retrieved 2017-04-28 .
  44. Jump up^ Bukowiecki, E. (2012). Promoting quality assurance in literacy instruction: The preparation, concerns and practices of literacy professionals . Philadelphia: New Foundations. pp. 24-33.
  45. Jump up^ Deussen, T .; Coskie, T .; Robinson, L .; Autio, E. (2007). “Coach” can mean many things: Five categories of literacy coaches in Reading First . Washington DC: US ​​Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance.
  46. ^ Jump up to:a b c Mangin, Melinda M .; Dunsmore, KaiLonnie (2014-05-14). “How the Framing of Instructional Coaching as a Lever for Systemic or Individual Reform Influences the Enactment of Coaching” . Educational Administration Quarterly . 51 (2): 179-213. Doi : 10.1177 / 0013161×14522814 .
  47. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e Knight, J. (2007). Instructional Coaching: A Partnership Approach to Improving Instruction . Corwin Press.
  48. ^ Jump up to:a b Medrich, EA; Fitzgerald, R .; Skomsvold, P. (2013). “Instructional Coaching and Student Outcomes: Findings from a Three Year Pilot Study” (PDF) . Retrieved March 20, 2017 .
  49. Jump up^ Ball, DL (1996). “Teacher Learning and the Mathematics Reforms: What We Think We Know and What We Need to Learn”. The Phi Delta Kappan . 77 : 500-508.
  50. ^ Jump up to:a b Nelson, Barbara Scott; Sassi, Annette (2016-06-29). “Shifting Approaches to Supervision: The Case of Mathematics Supervision” . Educational Administration Quarterly . 36 (4): 553-584. Doi : 10.1177 / 00131610021969100 .
  51. Jump up^ Shulman, L. (1986). “Those who understand: Knowledge growth in teaching Educational Researcher”. Educational Researcher . 57: 4-14.
  52. Jump up^ Pompa, C. (2012)Literature Review on enterprise mentoring. EPS-PEAKSquery response.

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