IPS Supported Employment

IPS Supported Employment is an evidence-based approach to employment for people who suffer from a mental illness. IPS stands for Individual Placement and Support . IPS supports people in their efforts to achieve steady, meaningful employment in mainstream competitive jobs, This stands in contrast to other vocational rehabilitation approaches that employ people in sheltered workshops and other set-aside jobs.

IPS has been extensively researched and proven to be effective. [1]


IPS is based on eight principles. [2] Mental health agencies that implement IPS to follow these principles in delivering vocational services.

IPS Principles
 1 Every person with severe mental illness who wants to work is eligible for IPS supported employment.
 2 Employment services are integrated with mental health treatment services.
 3 Competitive employment is the goal.
 4 Personalized benefits counseling is provided.
 5 The job search starts after a person expresses interest in working.
 6 Employment specialists systematically develop relationships with employers based on their clients’ preferences.
 7 Job supports are continuous.
 8 Customer preferences are honored.

The implementation of these principles can be assessed by using a fidelity scale and an accompanying manual that have been developed specifically for IPS.


IPS was first studied in a randomized controlled trial in 1996. [3] Between 1996 and 2011, IPS was evaluated in randomized controlled trials. [4] This research has established IPS as an evidence-based practice in community psychiatry. Studies in this body of research typically compare IPS to another approach to vocational rehabilitation. Study participants are randomized to receive services from one of the vocational approaches being studied. Researchers observes the proportion of participants in each group who get jobs within some fixed period of time. This follow-up period varies across studies from 6 months to 30 months, averaging 18 months. [5] On average, 60% of participating researchers get a competitive job during the follow-up period when they receive IPS, whereas 24% of participants get a competitive job when receiving other vocational services. [5] These results, along with data from non-research implementations of IPS, have resulted in the establishment of benchmark employment rates for IPS programs. [5]

In addition to testing the comparative effectiveness of IPS Researchers-have Conducted implementation research is IPS [6] research were predictors of outcome (who gets jobs and why), [7] [8] [9] [10] barriers to employment for People who have a serious mental illness, [11] [12] [13] [14] and a number of other related areas.

What happens in IPS

IPS services are typically delivered by supported employment teams that operate within community mental health agencies . These teams work with their agency’s clinical staff to coordinate services. When a client at the agency expresses an interest in the IPS team for an initial meeting. The employment specialist works with the client to learn about his or her goals and preferences and provides information about how IPS works. When someone chooses to enroll in IPS, that person and the employment specialist make a plan together and begin to look for regular expresses interest in doing so. Job training, coaching, resume development, interview training, And on-the-job support. Employment specialists are also trained to do job development; A process in which employment specialists build relationships with employers in businesses that are consistent with client preferences.

In IPS, the client’s preferences are central. The client who decides whether or not to employ his / her own personal knowledge and knowing his / her / his mental illness and whether or not the. The client also decides which jobs to apply for and how much he or she wants to work. The decision about how much to work is often influenced by a desire to transition to a working life while minimizing the risk of being both out of work and without disability benefits. Part of the employment specialist’s job is to connect people with benefits counseling so that they can make informed decisions in this area.

People who try IPS often get a good job. In IPS there is an orientation towards moving between jobs as part of a normal process. This process aims at convergence towards stable employment and the client’s personal recovery goals.

Access to IPS Services

As of 2009 only 2.1% of US mental health clients had access to evidence-based vocational services. [15] Mental health care and treatment for the elderly. [16] Nonetheless, as of 2011, IPS was offered by mental health agencies in at least 13 states. [17] Because there is no national directory of IPS providers, people should be asked to provide local providers about their vocational services in order to find out whether or not evidence-based vocational services are available.


The Johnson & Johnson – Dartmouth Community Mental Health Program was created to provide IPS for the implementation of IPS at the state level. In 2001, the Dartmouth Psychiatric Research Center launched this program with philanthropic support from Johnson & Johnson Corporate Contributions . This program has resulted in the implementation of IPS services in everyday (ie, non-research) settings. Membership in this collaborative is widespread. As of 2011, 13 states containing 130 participating mental health agencies were part of the collaborative. [17] This paper presents the results of the first two experiments. After this first phase, states and their participating agencies are involved by participating in research projects, and by continuing statewide implementation efforts.

IPS outside of the United States

Although IPS was developed in the United States, research literature suggests a wider interest in IPS and suggests that the intervention is effective across a range of environments. Randomized trials of IPS have been conducted in Canada, [18] throughout Europe, [19] including in the UK, in Australia, [20] The Netherlands, [21] Switzerland, [22] and Hong Kong. [23]

In the UK, Center for Mental Health has developed a Centers of Excellence based on the Dartmouth Medical School scheme. Individual Placement and Support (IPS) can be implemented in localities across England. http://www.centreformentalhealth.org.uk/employment/ips.aspx


  1. Jump up^ Bond, Gary; Drake, Robert; Becker, Deborah (2008). “An Update on Randomized Controlled Trials of Evidence-Based Supported Employment.” Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal . 31(4): 280-290. PMID  18407876 . Doi : 10.2975 / 31.4.2008.280.290 .
  2. Jump up^ Bond, Gary (2004). “Supported employment: Evidence for an evidence-based practice”. Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal . 27(4): 345-359. PMID  15222147 . Doi : 10.2975 / 27.2004.345.359 .
  3. Jump up^ Drake, Robert; McHugo, Gregory; Becker, Deborah; Anthony, William; Clark, Robin (1996). “The New Hampshire Study of Sustainable Employment for People with Severe Mental Illness” . Journal of Clinical Psychology . 64 (2): 391-399. PMID  8871423 . Doi : 10.1037 / 0022-006X.64.2.391 .
  4. Jump up^ Drake, Robert; Bond, Gary (2011). “IPS Supported Employment: A 20-YearUpdate”. American Journal of Psychiatric Rehabilitation . 14 (3): 155-164. Doi : 10.1080 / 15487768.2011.598090 .
  5. ^ Jump up to:a b c Becker, Deborah; Drake, Robert; Bond, Gary (2011). “Benchmark Outcomes in Supported Employment”. American Journal of Psychiatric Rehabilitation . 14 (3): 230-236. Doi : 10.1080 / 15487768.2011.598083 .
  6. Jump up^ Rosenheck, R .; Leslie, D; Keefe, R; McEvoy, J; Swartz, M; Perkins, D; Stroup, S; Hsiao, JK; Lieberman, J (2006). “Barriers to Employment for People with Schizophrenia”. American Journal of Psychiatry . 163 (3): 411-7. PMID  16513861 . Doi : 10.1176 / appi.ajp.163.3.411 .
  7. Jump up^ Bond, Gary R; Drake, Robert E (2008). “Predictors of competitive employment among patients with schizophrenia”. Current Opinion in Psychiatry . 21 (4): 362-9. PMID  18520741 . Doi : 10.1097 / YCO.0b013e328300eb0e .
  8. Jump up^ Salkever, DS; Karakus, MC; Slade, EP; Harding, CM; Hough, RL; Rosenheck, RA; Swartz, MS; Barrio, C .; Yamada, AM (2007). “Measures and Predictors of Community-Based Employment and Earnings of Persons with Schizophrenia in a Multisite Study”. Psychiatric Services . 58 (3): 315-24. PMID  17325103 . Doi :10.1176 / appi.ps.58.3.315 .
  9. Jump up^ Becker, Deborah R .; Xie, Haiyi; McHugo, Gregory J .; Halliday, John; Martinez, Rick A. (2006). “What Predicted Supported Employment Outcomes Program?”. Community Mental Health Journal . 42 (3): 303-13. PMID  16532378 . Doi : 10.1007 / s10597-006-9037-8 .
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  11. Jump up^ Biegel, DE; Stevenson, LD; Beimers, D .; Ronis, RJ; Boyle, P. (2009). “Predictors of Competitive Employment Among Clients with Co-Occurring Mental and Substance Use Disorders”. Research on Social Work Practice . 20 (2): 191. doi : 10.1177 / 1049731509333373 .
  12. Jump up^ Henry, AD; Lucca, AM (2004). “Facilitators and barriers to employment: The perspectives of people with psychiatric disabilities and employment service providers”. Work (Reading, Mass.) . 22 (3): 169-82. PMID  15156083 .
  13. Jump up^ Corbiere, M. (2004). “Perceptions of Barriers to Employment, Coping Efficacy, and Career Search Efficacy in People with Mental Illness.” Journal of Career Assessment . 12 (4): 460. doi : 10.1177 / 1069072704267738 .
  14. Jump up^ McQuilken, Michael (2003). “The work project survey: client perspectives on work”. Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation . 18(1).
  15. Jump up^ “2009 CMHS Uniform Reporting System Output Tables” . Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration . Retrieved 30 December 2011 .
  16. Jump up^ Drake, RE; Skinner, John; Bond, Gary; Goldman, Howard (2009). “Social Security and Mental Illness: Reducing Disability with Supported Employment” . Health Affairs . 28 (3): 761-70. PMC  2828629  . PMID  19414885 . Doi : 10.1377 / hlthaff.28.3.761 .
  17. ^ Jump up to:a b Becker, Deborah; Drake, Robert; Bond Gary; Nawaz, Saira; Haslett, William; Martinez, Rick (2011). “Best practices: A national mental health learning collaborative on supported employment”. Psychiatric Services . 62 (7): 704-706. PMID  21724779 . Doi : 10.1176 / appi.ps.62.7.704 .
  18. Jump up^ Latimer, Eric A .; Lecomte, Tiana; Becker, Deborah R .; Drake, Robert E .; Duclos, Isabelle; Piat, Myra; Lahaie, Nicole; St-Pierre, Marie-Sylvie; Therrien, Claude; Xie, Haiyi (2006). “A Canadian randomized controlled trial”. The British Journal of Psychiatry . 189 : 65-73. PMID  16816308 . Doi : 10.1192 / bjp.bp.105.012641 .
  19. Jump up^ Burns, Tom; Catty, Jocelyn; Becker, Thomas; Drake, Robert E; Fioritti, Angelo; Knapp, Martin; Lauber, Christoph; Rössler, Wulf; Tomov, Toma; Van Busschbach, Jooske; White, Sarah; Wiersma, Durk (2007). “A randomized controlled trial”. The Lancet . 370(9593): 1146. doi : 10.1016 / S0140-6736 (07) 61516-5 .
  20. Jump up^ Killackey, E .; Jackson, HJ; McGorry, PD (2008). “Vocational intervention in first-episode psychosis: Individual placement and support v. Treatment as usual”. The British Journal of Psychiatry . 193 (2): 114-20. PMID  18669993 . Doi : 10.1192 / bjp.bp.107.043109 .
  21. Jump up^ Michon, Harry; Van Vugt, M .; Van Busschbach, J. (2011). “Effectiveness of Individual Placement and Support; 18 & 30 months follow-up”. Paper presented at the Enmesh Conference, Ulm, Germany .
  22. Jump up^ Hoffmann, H .; Jäckel, D .; Glauser, S .; Kupper, Z. (2012). “A randomized controlled trial of the efficacy of supported employment”. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica . 125 (2): 157-67. PMID:  22077907 . Doi : 10.1111 / j.1600-0447.2011.01780.x .
  23. Jump up^ Kin Wong, K .; Chiu, R .; Tang, B .; Mak, D .; Liu, J .; Chiu, SN (2008). “A Randomized Controlled Trial of a Supported Employment Program for Persons with Long-Term Mental Illness in Hong Kong”. Psychiatric Services . 59 (1): 84-90. PMID  18182544 . Doi : 10.1176 / appi.ps.59.1.84 .

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