An internship is a job training for white collar and professional careers. [1] [2]

Internships for professional careers are similar in ways Some but not as Rigorous as apprenticeships for occupations, trade and vocational jobs, [3] aim the Lack of standardization and oversight leaves the term open to broad interpretation. [4] [5] Interns may be college or university students, high school students, or post-graduate adults. These positions may be paid or unpaid and are usually temporary.

Generally, an internship consists of an exchange of services for experience between the student and an organization. Students can also use an internship to determine if they have an interest in a particular career, to create a network of contacts, to acquire a letter to add to their curriculum vitae , or to gain school credit. Some interns find permanent, paid employment with the organizations for which they performed upon completion of the internship. This can be a significant benefit to the employed as experienced interns. It also helps to employ in gauging a student’s aptitude , since grade inflation has undermined the reliability of academic grades.


Internships exist in a wide variety of industries and settings. An internship may be paid, unpaid, or partially paid (in the form of a stipend ). Stipends are typically a fixed amount of money that is paid out on a regular basis. Usually, interns are paid on a monthly basis. Paid internships are common in professional fields Including medicine , architecture , science , engineering , law , business (especially accounting and finance ), technology , and advertising . Non-profit charities and think tanks often have unpaid, volunteer positions. Internships may be part-time or full-time . A typical internship lasts one entre and oven months, [7] goal can be go short gold skirt, DEPENDING on the organization Involved. The act of job shadowing may also constitute interning.

The two primary types of internships that exist in the United States are:

  • Work experience : Most often this is in the second or third year of the school period. The placement can be from two months to one full school year. During this period, the student is expected to use the things they have learned in school and put them into practice. This way the student gains work experience in their field of study. The winning experience will be the final year of study.
  • Research (graduation) or dissertation : This is mostly done by students who are in their final year. With this kind of internship a student does research for a particular company. The company can have something that they feel they need to improve, or the student can choose a topic within the company themselves. The results of the research study will be published in the journal.

European internships are popular among non-Europeans in order to gain international exposure on one’s summary and for foreign language improvement, although they may be unpaid.

Another type of internship is the virtual internship , in which the interns remotely, and is not physically present at the job location. It provides the capacity to gain experience without the conventional requirement of being physically present in an office. The internship is conducted via virtual means, such as phone, email, and web communication. Virtual interns have the opportunity to work at their own pace. [8]

Fees for internship and charity auctions

Some companies now find and place students in mostly unpaid internships for a fee. [9] These companies charge to assist with a search, promising to refund their fees if no internship is found. [10] These programs vary, but they provide opportunities to provide reputable companies, provide controlled housing in a new city, mentorship and support throughout the summer, networking, weekend activities in some programs, and sometimes academic credit. [11]

Another form of paying for internships is through charity auctions. A company with an internship will select a charity who will obtain an internship position funded by the auction. In some cases, companies have created internships simply to help a charity. [9]

Some claims that fee-based programs and charity auctions restrict internship opportunities to students in wealthier families. [11] These companies respond that “the average student comes from the middle class,” and that their parents’ ‘dig deep’ to pay for it “. Some companies have funded scholarships and grants for low-income applicants.

Critics of internships in the practice of requiring certain college credits to be obtained only through unpaid internships. Depending on the cost of the school, this is often as an unethical practice, as it requires students to exchange paid-for and limited tuition credits in order to work an uncompensated job. Even if the school does not require credit for an internship, companies offering the internship to college college students.

Paying for academic credits can also be seen as a way to ensure that students complete the duration of the internship, as they can be held accountable by their academic institution. For example, a student may be awarded academic credit only after their university receives a positive review from the interns supervisor at the sponsoring organization. Some employers feel that this is a “skin in the game”.

By region

Internship laws and practices vary widely from country to country, and region to region.



Internships positions in China, the follow-up to the academic calendar, starting in late summer and finishing in late spring. There is a growing trend for overseas students (especially those from Australia, the UK, and the US) to compete for increasing internship opportunities available in China. [12] [13] [14] It is common for overseas students to use the services of (for-profit) China-based internship providers to secure their internship. [15] [16] [17]


Internship opportunities in India. College students often choose internships based on their branch of study. Students often perceive it as a way to develop their capabilities by practically applying their degree while learning in a professional work environment.

Most students apply for internships during their summer and winter breaks. In some universities, internships during the college breaks are compulsory and a part of the curriculum. It is common that they have acquired the necessary skills and experience. Moreover, many engineering students also have an internship.


Most universities and colleges in Malaysia have a minimum of one semester-long internship in their final year of studies before they are eligible to graduate from a diploma or bachelor program. This applies to both government and private universities and colleges. It also applies to most programs offered. Students can either find a suitable internship at a company in Malaysia or they can complete their internship overseas.Once a student complete their internship, it is estimated that they have around 20% more chances to land a job compared to students without prior internship.



Internships in Australia is an international organization dedicated to the development and implementation of international trade policies. Some degree programs Such As engineering require a minimum amount of industry experience (usually 12 weeks) to Attain professional accreditation with industry bodies, Such As Engineers Australia .

Unpaid internships are legal and allowed under the Fair Work Act 2009 . There are a number of criteria to be used in determining whether or not to engage in a legitimate internship, including:

  • Benefit to the individual
  • Commercial gain for the company
  • Period of placement, and
  • Relationship to a course of study. [18]

New Zealand

In New Zealand, there are a number of colleges where students can undertake an internship while studying. Students studying adventure tourism or hospitality management must complete an internship in order to complete their course studies. Most of these internships are paid by the employer.

Students studying for careers in educational psychology in New Zealand full must have one-year internship – the internship program at Massey University , for example, is a one-year post master, post graduate diploma in educational psychology and the majorité of internships are the carried out With placement in the Ministry of Education . Some funding is available through the Ministry of Education Study Awards program to support interns in their applied practice. The funds are contestable each year. In 2013, there were 10 study awards each worth NZ $ 15,000.

Students studying for a bachelor of communication studies, majoring in journalism at Auckland University of Technology are required to undergo a two-week compulsory internship in their third year of study. This internship can be a national or local newspaper, a magazine or a radio station. They are required to research and write stories for publication and broadcast in a fast-paced news environment.



Work without pay is inappropriate in Denmark. One way it can be done as part of a work-trial . [19]

It is also common within most Danish universities to place students in “free work” jobs. The company is then compensated and internally receives welfare during this period. This normally lasts about three months. The Danish trade unions monitor this type of work very close to the hiring of an intern does not result in the loss of a paid job. [20] [21]

In 2008, a new system established by the department of education may lower the motivation of students who take time to work for charities . [22]

Students and citizens of the EEA / EU area can freely move and reside in Denmark under EU rules. If their stay exceeds three months then an application for registration with the Regional State Administration has to be filed. [23] If the student comes from outside the European Union, the following rules apply to the residence and work permit for an internship:

  • The student must be between 18 and 34 years old (excluded from this are health care students)
  • The internship must contribute to the student’s studies
  • The respective internship provider must be able to offer appropriate work
  • Salary and employment conditions must comply with the regulations of the Danish collective agreements
  • A detailed description of the internship and its objective must be handled in the application [24]

Moreover, there are special rules for agricultural, healthcare and architectural internships. [24]

European Union

The European Commission operates a sizeable traineeship program .


At French universities, internships, known as “internships” , are common. The duration of French internships usually varies from two to six months (which is the maximum legal length). French labor law requires that all internships lasting two months or longer include a minimum stipend (€ 3.60 per hour in 2016). [25]

Internships in France are also popular for international students. The primary reason is to learn English. French companies greatly appreciate employees who speak multiple languages ​​and thus international opportunities are available. [26]


( German : “praktikum” ) between the fourth and fifth semester of their degree at a university of applied sciences. In some fields of study it is common to write the final thesis in a company as part of an internship. Some degrees do not require practical training in order to graduate.

Another type of internship has emerged in recent years is the post graduation internship. The purpose of a post-graduate internship is to equip the student with knowledge and tools to be successful in their future position. These post graduation internships should last between six and ten months. [27]


Since the Italian university system ENTERED the Bologna Process , an internship experience (Commonly Referred to by the French term internship ) has-been made compulsory for Almost All Those Who are studying for a bachelors gold master’s degree (especially in technical, economic or scientific Faculties ). The goal of this process is to reduce the gap between companies’ demands and the often very theoretical learning offered by Italian universities. However, since the internship is usually completed at university as well as since few companies which employ interns rarely offer proper training, these internships are not considered real work experience. Almost all students have a second or third internship after they have completed their studies,

Italian internships can last up to six months and can be extended for another six months for a potential year long internship. Internships in Italy can be either paid or unpaid. Student internships, especially the ones not involved with the development of a thesis, are usually not paid.

Almost all graduate internships are paid, but the remuneration is usually only around 600 euros gross per month (that is about ¼ of the gross monthly remuneration of an hired young graduate employee) and without benefits Vacation citation needed ] . This poses a problem for graduates, considering as well as some companies use graduate interns just to save money, making them work for 6 to 12 months without giving them a decent remuneration, without offering them proper training or training, and without hiring them after the Internship even if they were shown to be productive, fast-learning and trustworthy.

In order to get an internship, graduates have to go to interviews, which might be held in cities.


In the Netherlands , it est common to perform internships During college citation needed ] qui, like in Belgium and France, has s’intitule internship . Most student internships last between 3 and 10 months citation needed ] . Companies are not obligated to pay the student, so sometimes small companies do not pay anything. Unpaid internships are also de facto standard in education. The normal internship compensation in the Netherlands is around € 300 per month citation needed ] , depending on education level and company generosity. Netherlands no.5


At Spanish universities, internship during the education period are uncommon. “Real” work experience for students begins only when they are done with their study.

Some Spanish companies are getting more used to having students internships-mostly these are international students from other European countries. Often, students want to learn Spanish . Placement organizations may be needed as well. The normal course in Spain is around € 500 per month. Retribution is regulated in many universities starting from € 6 per hour. Given those rates, Spanish employers who can hire interns often may be taking advantage of unpaid interships in order to get free labor. [28]

United Kingdom

Main article: Work experience

In the United Kingdom , work experience is offered as part of the national curriculum to secondary school students in years 10 and 11 (14 to 16 years of age.) Generally, these placements are unpaid.

During their summer program, students may apply for internships. University staff give students access, and students apply direct to employers. Some students opt to apply for year-long placements, often referred to as “sandwich placements”, between the penultimate and final year of their degree. This is a part of a degree program. Some universities and employers hold fairs and exhibitions to encourage students to consider the option and to enable students to meet potential employers. [29] In the modern labor market, graduates with internship work experience are deemed more desirable to employers.

The purpose of these investments is varied. Some university students see it as a way to develop their employability by using the academic elements of their degree in a practical setting. International students may also seek to get understanding about how work is conducted in the English-speaking world and to experience cultural diversity. Organizations such as the Trades Union Congress and Intern Aware have been lobbying for a change in British internships to make interns aware of their employment law rights, especially in relation to whether they are entitled to minimum wage and paid holidays. [30] [31]

The legal status of volunteers and interns is not always clear. Various factors determine whether an individual is a worker, a volunteer or a self-employed worker. [32]

North America

Main article: Cooperative education


In Canada, high school, college, and university students are co-ops (co-operative education) programs. University co-op programs are often highly competitive; Students must adhere to, and enrollment is limited. Partnering employers will post placement opportunities through the university. These positions typically span a four-month term taking place either during summer break or during the school year. Some summer internships require proof that the student is returning to school in the fall.

While some internships are unpaid (especially in media, advertising, PR, and communications), there are a few Canadian organizations that do offer paid internships. Not all internships are entry-level positions; Organizations may also offer internships for mid-level professionals. For example, in the province of Ontario , paid internships are available for immigrants.

The nature and scope of unpaid internships in Canada is difficult to estimate. This is in part because there are no written regulations defining internships directly. Minimum wage for labor is covered by employment standards and is governed by the provincial level. Ontario provides for a six-point test to be applied to determine if an employee-employee relationship does not exist, [33]

  • The training is similar to what is given in a vocational school
  • The training is for the benefit of the individual
  • The person providing the training derives little, if any, benefit from the activity of the individual while he or she is being trained
  • The individual does not displace employees of the person providing the training
  • The individual is not accorded a right to become an employee of the person providing the training
  • The individual is advised that he or she will receive no remuneration for the time that he or she spends in training

United States

Many internships in the United States are career specific. Students often choose internships based on their major at the university or college level. It is not uncommon to train interns to acquire full-time employment at an organization once they have enough necessary experience. The challenging job market has made it essential for college students to gain real world experience prior to graduation. Yet, only 37% of unpaid interns have job offers awaiting them at graduation compared to 60% of paid interns and 36% of students with no internship experience. [34] In the US, NIGMS funded biotechnology training programs [35] for science PhD students. The Office of Personnel Management of the US Federal Government. [36]

Not all internships are paid. Many internships that are unpaid involve receiving college credit, especially if an internship is correlated with a specific class. The US Department of Labor ‘s Wage and Hour Division Allows use year not to pay a trainee if all Of the following are true: [37]

  • The training, even though it includes the actual operation of the facilities of the employer, is similar to what would be given in a vocational school or academic educational instruction
  • The training is for the benefit of the trainees
  • The trainees do not displace regular employees, but work under their close observation
  • The use of the trainees, and the opportunity for the training to be carried out may be impeded
  • The trainees are not necessarily entitled to a job at the conclusion of the training period
  • The employment and the trainees understand that the trainees are not entitled to wages for the time spent in training

An exception is allowed for individuals who volunteer their time, freely and without anticipation of compensation for religious, charitable, civic, or humanitarian purposes to non-profit organizations. [38] An exception is also allowed for work performed for a state or local government agency. [38]

Some states have their own laws on the subject. [39] Laws in the state of California, for example, require an employee to pay his interns working in California or offered the intern academy or college credit for their time and labor. [39] As another example, in the state of New York, for-profits companies, the activities of trainees or students can not provide an immediate advantage to the employ. On the other hand, trainees or students do not receive employee benefits like health and dental insurance, pension or retirement credit, discounted or free goods and services from the employer, etc. [40]

  • In April 2014, Condé Nast settled the Ballinger vs. Advance Magazine Publishers Inc. lawsuit over unpaid interns. [41] “Former W Magazine intern Lauren Ballinger and former New Yorker intern Matthew Leib” filed the lawsuit in federal court in the Southern District of New York in June 2013. [41] The interns claimed that they were paid below minimum wage when working For the Condé Nast titles and, as a result, Condé Nast decided to discontinue its unpaid intern program. [41]
  • In 2012, a Harper’s Bazaar intern sued Hearst Magazines because of a minimum wage and overtime laws. [41] The judge dismissed that case, but the internality of the ruling. [41]
  • In New York federal court, the Fox Searchlight Pictures litigation is a class-action suit claiming that Fox violated federal and state minimum wage laws by not paying production interns on its Black Swan film. [41] In June 2013, the judge ruled that the unpaid interns were employees, which are entitled under the Federal Labor Standards Act. [41] Fox Searchlight Pictures later appealed the ruling. [42]

South America


Internships in Brazil are Known As estágios and internship workers are Known As estagiários . The term “estágio” applies to both internships and academic internships.

Academic internships are usually arranged for college credit (research hours). Brazilian research projects do not usually allocate funds for paid interns, and as a result, academic internships are often unpaid.

Company and industry internships are regulated by the Lei do Estágio (“internship law”), which requires that companies provide a monthly salary and personal injury service . The Lei do Estágio further stipulates a limit of 30 worked hours per week. [43] Estagiários also have the right to 30 days of paid holidays for each year worked. In practice, legal interns in Big Law and others in professional services routinely work.



An internship in Nigeria is called a “Student Industrial Work Experience Scheme” (SIWES) or “Industrial Training”. Students In universities usually spend six months in their third year for five-year races. Students in polytechnics for a two-year National Diploma undergo four months of SIWES which is in most cases a 4 credit (unit) course, at the end of National Diploma program, they will go for another 1 year Admission into Higher National Diploma to complete their studies. Students usually use their semester break for industrial training. While an SIWES is a type of internship in Nigeria, a more formal form of internship is seen in medical and allied health professions. Professionals in radiography, medical laboratory sciences, pharmacy, Physiotherapy, and medicine undergo a one-year government-paid internship after graduation from school. These professionals are actually called “interns” in Nigeria.

See also

  • Curricular Practical Training (for international students)
  • Experiential education
  • externship
    • Sub-internship
  • practicum
  • Postdoctoral researcher
  • Service-learning
  • Skintern
  • Take Our Daughters and Sons to Work Day


  1. Jump up^ Definition of Internship (as set forth in the Ohio State University Department of Political Science, accessed January 22, 2013
  2. Jump up^ United Nations internship page, listing purposes of internship
  3. Jump up^ “The difference between Internships and Apprenticeships” . .
  4. Jump up^ “Wonkblog” . The Washington Post .
  5. Jump up^ Greenhouse, Steven (April 2, 2010). “The Unpaid Intern, Legal or Not” . The New York Times .
  6. Jump up^ Thompson, Derek (December 2012). “The Role of Higher Education in Career Development: Employer Perceptions”(PDF) . The Chronicle of Higher Education . Retrieved 28 March2017 .
  7. Jump up^ “Internships – Jobs, Reviews, Advice – RateMyPlacement” . .
  8. Jump up^ Virtual internship
  9. ^ Jump up to:a b Sue Shellenbarger (January 28, 2009). “Do You Want An Internship? It’s Cost You” . The Wall Street Journal .
  10. Jump up^ Timothy Noah (January 28, 2009). “Opportunity for Sale, Psst! Wanna buy an internship?” .
  11. ^ Jump up to:a b “Unpaid internships face legal, ethical scrutiny” , The Bowdoin Orient , Bowdoin College, April 30, 2004
  12. Jump up^ “Australian graduates pay for internship programs in China” . . 4 June 2013 . Retrieved 9 October 2013 .
  13. Jump up^ “Graduates going to great lengths to get ahead” . BBC . 25 August 2010 . Retrieved 9 October 2013 .
  14. Jump up^ “The China Internship Business Is Booming” . Bloomberg BusinessWeek . Retrieved 9 October 2013 .
  15. Jump up^ Pettitt, Mark (27 February 2013). “Understanding China is vital for today’s graduates” . The Independent . London . Retrieved 9 October 2013 .
  16. Jump up^ “Graduates look overseas as jobs dry up” . The Guardian . Retrieved 9 October 2013 .
  17. Jump up^ “Foreign interns seek experience in Chinese companies” . China Daily . Retrieved 2 August 2012 .
  18. Jump up^ “Unpaid work” . .
  19. Jump up^ Til debatten om arbejde, by Ellen Herkild, Arbejderen, September 4, 2004
  20. Jump up^ Jobtræning eller grov udnyttelse, by Claus Andersen, Arbejderen, February 9, 2005
  21. Jump up^ SiD Hillerød får ret i klage, January 7, 2003
  22. Jump up^ Nyt kvote 2 system fjerner motivation fra unge frivillige, by Morten Münster, Metroxpress, May 13, 2008
  23. Jump up^ “New to Denmark – Family reunification in Denmark for EU and EEA nationals citoyens” . .
  24. ^ Jump up to:a b “New to Denmark – Interns” . .
  25. Jump up^ “Minimum grace of a trainee” . .
  26. Jump up^ Crnković-Pozaic, Sanja,”Transition from School to Work: Internships and First Entry to the Labor Market in Croatia”,European Training Foundation(ETF) agency of theEuropean Union, Turin, Italy, Working Paper 2009.
  27. Jump up^ “Absolventen Praktikum” . .
  28. Jump up^ Guillermo Peris Peris. “The FAPE insta has Trabajo a actuar contra los abusos laborales a los becarios” . Diario Siglo XXI .
  29. Jump up^ AGR report 2008
  30. Jump up^ .
  31. Jump up^ Rowley, Tom; Savage, Michael (September 14, 2010). “MPs should pay us as employees, say Parliament’s revolting interns”. The Independent . London.
  32. Jump up^ Taiwo Odumosu, Volunteers and Interns: Practical Guidance for UK Charities (2012).
  33. Jump up^ “Are Unpaid Internships Legal in Ontario?” . , Discussing Employment Standards Act, 2000 , SO 2000, c. 41, s. 1 (2)
  34. Jump up^ Adams, Susan (July 25, 2012). “Odds Are Your Internship Will Get You a Job” . Forbes . Retrieved 7 December 2013 .
  35. Jump up^ National Institute of Medical Sciences: Biotechnology Predoctoral Research Training Program Institutions . Retrieved 2 July 2009 .
  36. Jump up^ “Hiring Authorities Students & Recent Graduates” . Office of Personnel Management . Retrieved 14 April 2014 .
  37. Jump up^ “Advisory: Training and Employment Guidance Letter No. 12-09″(PDF) . United States Department of Labor. April 2010.
  38. ^ Jump up to:a b “Fact Sheet # 71: Internship Programs Under The Fair Labor Standards Act” (PDF) . United States Department of Labor, Wage and Hour Division . April 2010.
  39. ^ Jump up to:a b Greenhouse, Steven (April 2, 2010). “The Unpaid Intern, Legal or Not” . The New York Times .
  40. Jump up^ “Wage Requirements for Interns in For-Profit Businesses”(PDF) . A Division of New York State Department of Labor . Retrieved 19 December 2016 .
  41. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e f g Steigrad, Alexandra (4 April 2014). “Condé Nast Settles Intern Lawsuit” . WWD . Retrieved 8 April 2014 .
  42. Jump up^ Venturi, Richard (April 8, 2015). “Meet the new forever interns” . BBC . Retrieved 5 August 2015 .
  43. Jump up^ Law of Internship

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