George Seldes

Henry George Seldes [3] ( / s ɛ l d ə s / SEL -dəs ; [yy] [4] November 16, 1890 – July 2, 1995) Was an American investigative journalist , foreign match , editor, author, and Media critic best known for the publication of the newsletter In Fact from 1940 to 1950. He was an investigative reporter– what the early 20th century called a muckraker . Like them he used his journalism to fight injustice and justify reform. But the public mood had changed, and the demand for muckraking was much weaker on the part of the readership. His career, According to historian Helen Fordham, demonstrates that those who crusaded too vehemently crossed a line and appeared to violate new standards of impartiality and objectivity. His work was often criticized as too radical. [5]


Influenced by Lincoln Steffens and Walter Lippmann , [6] [7] Selde’s career began when he was nineteen years old and was hired at the Pittsburgh Leader . [1] In 1914, he was appointed night editor of the Pittsburgh Post .

In 1916, he Went to the United Press in London and, starting in 1917. During World War I, he Moved to France to work at the Marshall Syndicate. While there, he interviewed Paul von Hindenburg , the supreme commander of the German Army. Hindenburg commented on the defeat of Germany in the war, including US involvement; But this interview was censored by the US military. Selves would later claim that the publication of this interview could have avoided the rising of the Nazis to power and, thus, World War II. [8] [9]

After World War I, he has been a reporter for the Chicago Tribune . In 1922, he interviewed Vladimir Lenin and, in 1923, was expelled from the Soviet Union, along with three colleagues, for disguising news reports as personal letters; A letter his publisher wrote for the Soviets only facilitated his expulsion. [10] The newspaper feels Then _him_ to Italy, Where is he Reported opposition leader Giacomo Matteotti ‘s murder, Implicated Benito Mussolini in Matteotti’s death, and Was Expelled again. [11]

In 1927, he reported for the Chicago Tribune in Mexico, where he criticized the use of the country’s mineral rights by American companies. He battled with the Tribune’s owner and publisher, Col. Robert McCormick, over the paper’s altering of his Mexico articles, and soon afterwards left the Tribune over what he felt was censorship.

In 1929, Seldes became a freelance reporter and author, who subsequently wrote a series of books and criticisms about his years as a foreign correspondent, and the issues of censorship, suppression and distortion in the press. During the late 1930s he had one more stint as a foreign correspondent, along with his wife Helen, for the New York Post , in Spain during the Spanish Civil War .

In 1940, Seldes co-founded a weekly newsletter, In Fact , subtitled “An Antidote to Falsehoods in the Daily Press.” In it, he attacked This corporate malfeasance, Governmental Often using materials from the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) and the Federal Communications Commission (FCC). He exposed, issue after issue, the health hazards of cigarettes and attacked the mainstream press for suppressing such news, blaming the newspapers’ heavy dependence on cigarette advertising. He cited J. Edgar Hoover and the FBI for anti-union campaigns. He Brought focus to how the National Association of Manufacturers Was reliable to use ict advertising dollars to Produce News stories favorable to icts members and to suppress news stories unfavorable to ’em. [12]

Having both staunch admirers and strong critics , Seldes influenced some younger journalists. He received an award for professional excellence from the Association for Education in Journalism in 1980, [1] and a George Polk Award For His life’s work in 1981. [13] Seldes aussi served on the board of Fairness and Accuracy in Reporting (FAIR) . [14]


The writer and critic Gilbert Seldes was George Seldes’s younger brother. Actress Marian Seldes was his niece; His nephew was the literary agent Timothy Seldes. [1]

He was married to Helen Larkin Seldes, born Wiesman, from 1932 to her death in 1979. [1] [2]

Early years

Henry George Seldes, named after-economist Henry George , [3] Was Born on November 16, 1890 to ethnic Jewish emigrants from Russia in Alliance Colony , an agricultural community in rural southern New Jersey. [15] [16] His mother, Anna Saphro, [3] died in 1896 when he and his younger brother, Gilbert, were still young. [17] George’s father, George Sergius Seldes, a pharmacist and Strongly opinionated and philosophical Radically Man Who Was a libertarian and corresponded with Leo Tolstoy and Peter Kropotkin , being white lath interested in the ideas it’s mutual aid , [3] impacted every aspect of his young sons’ lives. The elder George pushed his sons to “read books that you will never again,” and refused to force religion to children who were “too young to understand it,” instilling a free-thinking attitude within his sons. [18]

When he was nineteen, Seldes went to work at the Pittsburgh Leader . An early scoop of his, for this newspaper, Was When Two-time presidential candidate William Jennings Bryan Expelled Seldes off Bryan’s hotel room. [2] He also interviewed a saleswoman who had filed a rape complaint against the sound of the owner on a large department store ; However, the story was not published, and Seldes was outraged when the advertising department of the newspaper blackmailed the owner into buying more advertising; [1] he’d show outrage for this event even eighty years later. [2] In 1914, he was appointed night editor of the Pittsburgh Post . As a young journalist,

World War I

In 1916, Seldes moved to London where he worked for the United Press . When the United States joined the First World War in 1917, Seldes was sent to France as the war correspondent for the Marshall Syndicate .

At the end of the war, he obtained an interview with Paul von Hindenburg , the supreme commander of the German Army, in which Hindenburg acknowledged the role America had played in defeating Germany. “The American infantry,” said Hindenburg, “won the World War in battle in the Argonne.” Seldes and the others were accused of breaking the Armistice and were short martialed . They were also forbidden to write anything about the interview and it never appeared in American news media. Seldes believed that blocking publication of this interview proved tragic. Unaware of Hindenburg’s direct testimony of Germany’s military defeat, Germans adopted the Dolchstoss or “stab-in-the-back” Theory that Germany had only lost the war because it was betrayed at home by “the socialists, the Communists and the Jews,” which served as Nazism’sexplanation for Germany’s defeat. “If the Hindenburg interview had been passed by Pershing’s censors at the time, it would have been headlined in every country’s civilized enough to have newspapers and undoubtedly would have made an impression on millions of people and became an important page in history, Wrote Seldes. “I think it would have prevented the World War II, the greatest and worst war in all history, and it would have changed the future of all mankind.” [8] [9] “If the Hindenburg interview had been passed by Pershing’s censors at the time, it would have been headlined in every country’s civilized enough to have newspapers and undoubtedly would have made an impression on millions of people and became an important page in history, Wrote Seldes. “I think it would have prevented the World War II, the greatest and worst war in all history, and it would have changed the future of all mankind.” [8] [9] “If the Hindenburg interview had been passed by Pershing’s censors at the time, it would have been headlined in every country’s civilized enough to have newspapers and undoubtedly would have made an impression on millions of people and became an important page in history, Wrote Seldes. “I think it would have prevented the World War II, the greatest and worst war in all history, and it would have changed the future of all mankind.” [8] [9]

Seldes asked that the Battle of Saint-Mihiel never happened. In his account, General Pershing planned to capture the city, but on September 1 the Germans decided to remove their forces from Saint-Mihiel to reinforce other positions. Seldes Claimed no shots fired Were you the first Americans, he Among Them, were entered the city on September 13 to be Greeted as liberators before General Pershing, Petain , and other high-ranking officers arrived. The men of German prisoners captured, he wrote, were taken as they did the German troops that had left. [19]

Lenin and Mussolini

Picture of a young George Seldes for a Chicago Tribune filecard. Notice the Chicago Tribune stamp

Tribute to the Chicago Tribune . He interviewed Lenin in 1922. He and three other reporters were expelled in 1923 when Soviet authorities, who routinely censored foreign reporters’ telegraphed dispatches, found articles by the four reporters, being smuggled out in a diplomatic mailpouch to avoid censorship . The expulsion was facilitated, according to Seles, after his publisher, Colonel Robert McCormick, failed to show sufficient respect to the Soviets to protest censorship. [10]

The Chicago Tribune feels _him_ to Italy Where he wrote about Benito Mussolini and the rise of fascism. (Mussolini had served as Seldes’ s stringer before the form taken power. [2] ) He investigated the murder of Giacomo Matteotti , the head of the united socialist party . His article implicated Mussolini in the killing, and Seldes was expelled from Italy. [11] He wrote an account of Italian censorship and intimidation of American reporters for Harper’s Magazine . [20]

In 1927, the Chicago Tribune sent Seldes to Mexico , but his articles criticizing American corporations for their use of that country’s mineral rights were not well received. Robert R. McCormick , Robert R. McCormick , and Robert R. McCormick .


Disillusioned, Seldes left the Tribune and went to work as a freelance writer. In his first two books, You Can not Print That! (1929) and Can These Things Be! (1931), Seldes included material that he had not been allowed to publish in the Tribune . His next book, World Panorama (1933), was a narrative history of the interbellum period. In 1932 he married Helen Larkin Wiesman (later Seldes), who died in the late 1970s. [1]

In 1934, the Roman Catholic Church, The Vatican . This was followed by an account of the global arms industry, Iron, Blood and Profits (1934) and an account of Benito Mussolini, Sawdust Caesar (1935).

Two books on the newspaper business Established His enduring reputation as a critic of the press: Freedom of the Press (1935) and Lords of the Press (1938). [1] He Took The title of the lath from a speech by Secretary of the Interior Harold Ickes : “Our ancestors Did not fight for the right of A Few Lords of the Press to-have exclusive Almost control of and censorship over the dissemination of news And ideas. ” [21] He believed “that advertisers were a far greater threat to journalistic freedom than government censorship.” [12] The press and news, he wrote, ” [23] Seldes said that he had been a member of the National Assembly of the United States. [24] [25]

He also reported on the Spanish Civil War on a freelance basis for three years and later that American reporters too readily accepted what the Franco side wanted them to believe. [1]

On his return to the United States in 1940, Selks published Witch Hunt , an account of the persecution of people with left-wing political views in America, and the Catholic Crisis , which sought to demonstrate the close relationship between the Catholic Church and fascist organizations In Europe. When Time reviewed the lath, it Noted Several of Seldes’ works and Said he “stuck out His tongue did Benito Mussolini … His nose thumbed at US journalism … and uttered Some hoarse Bronx cheers at the Roman Catholic Church.” The review complained that his accounts were “in part damaging” but “not all germane to the subject.” [26]

In Fact

“In Fact” redirects here. For the KAT-TUN song, see In Fact (song) . For a book, see In Fact: The Best of Creative Nonfiction .
Cover of volume IX of edition 22 of In Fact, An Antidote for Falsehood in the Daily Press

From 1940 to 1950, Seldes published a political newsletter, In Fact which originally had the full name In Fact: For the millions who want a free press [27] and later In Fact: An Antidote for Falsehood in the Daily Press , -page weekly compendium of news other newspapers would not print. ” [12] Washington Post editor and later press critic Ben Bagdikian Said, “When Seldes Was No. skirt printed by the mainstream press, He Was significant year led to the journalistic community, Who Knew That There Were flaws in the system, aim Often couldn ‘ “They are the only ones who have the right to say”

One of the first articles published in the newsletter concerned the dangers of cigarette smoking. [1] “The tobacco stories were suppressed by every major newspaper.” For ten years we pounded on tobacco as being one of the only legal poisons you could buy in America. ” At the time when tobacco companies were major advertisers, Seldes discussed the contents of a study called “Tobacco Smoking and Longevity”, which he said had been suppressed since 1939. [12] Throughout the 10-year run of In Fact , Seldes published More than 50 stories on the health effects of tobacco, and the cigarette industry’s attempts and suppressing such news.

Among the favorite targets of In Fact Was the National Association of Manufacturers . [1] Defense analyst Daniel Ellsberg , who subscribed to In Fact while an undergrad at Harvard, said, “I heard about the National Association of Manufacturers first from Seldes and more from Seldes than I ever heard again. Press, you’d hardly become aware that such organizations existed, that businessmen worked together to pursue their own interests. ” [28] In Fact also attacked Charles Lindbergh for his Nazi sympathies, the American Legion for helping to break strikes, [12] and labeled many captains of industry as “native fascists.” Consumer advocate Ralph Nader said, “[Seldes] used the word fascism to reflect an authoritative state of mind that tended to stifle free speech and dissent and also tended to believe that might was right.” [28]

In Fact immediately attracted the attention of government authorities. President Roosevelt ordered an FBI investigation of Seldes and In Fact in 1940. [29] Items claiming que la FBI Was infiltrating unions and monitor union activities resulted in FBI monitoring of Seldes and his publication. J. Edgar Hoover sent Seldes a 15-page letter denying such FBI activities. [30] The FBI subsequently questioned In Fact subscribers, particularly servicemen and women, and had US postal officials reporting to the FBI on Seldes’ mail correspondence. In Fact lost many of its subscribers in the late 1940s. Yugoslavia has received the publication banned from Communist Party bookstores. The political climate on the part of ideologically committed readers as well. [30] In Fact ceased publication in 1950. IF Stone’s Weekly , which began publication in 1953, took In Fact as its model. [12]

In addition to writing his newsletter, Seldes continued to publish books. These included Facts and Fascism (1943) and One Thousand Americans (1947), an account of the people who controlled America. Time called One Thousand Americans “a collection of truths, half-truths and untruths about the US press and industry.” [31] One Thousand Americans introduced a wide audience to the Business Plot , a supposed plan of America’s corporate elite to overthrow the US government in the early 1930s. [32]

Seldes published The People Do not Know the origins of the Cold War in 1949.

Critical reception

Seldes had both staunch admirers and strong critics. Some of Seldes’. One critic thought IF Stone “was light years beyond Seldes.” [33] Others cited his political bias and preconceptions. A study of the Dies Committee Said That Seldes’ account in Witch Hunt Suffered from His View That Everything the Committee DID was wrong. [34] Another warned that the Catholic Crisis “should be read with great caution in the author’s latent anti-Catholic and pro-communist bias.” [35] Another cited Seldes as a writer with “an agenda.” [36] Still another evaluated Iron, Blood, and Profits as “less sober” than other works on the subject of international arms dealing. [37] Of his biography of Mussolini, another wrote: “Many of his sources were unreliable and his book was almost devoid of logical order.” [38] A more appreciative estimate Said That Freedom of the Press was “one-sided, but well deserves careful reading.” [39] [38] A more appreciative estimate Said That Freedom of the Press was “one-sided, but well deserves careful reading.” [39] [38] A more appreciative estimate Said That Freedom of the Press was “one-sided, but well deserves careful reading.” [39]

Summing up Seldes’ work, another wrote that “until 1947 [Seldes] followed the Stalinist line so that any author must use it with the utmost care.” [40]

AJ Liebling said on him, “[George Seldes is] about as subtle as a house falling in. He makes too much of the failure of the newspapers to print exactly what George Seldes would have done to the managing editor. Useful citizen. “In fact, he is a fine little gadfly, making an enormous effort for one man and his wife.” [41]

But a whole generation of journalists and activists were greatly influenced by Seldes. Long-time Washington Post columnist Colman McCarthy Said, “He Was a delay Who Did not worry about objective being white. He worried about what he Would choose to write. I’m always amused When They call somebody ‘one-sided’. Seldes One side – the side you were not getting elsewhere “. [28] [42] Nader said of Seldes, “He was like a doctor.” He reported about the disease in the political economy, and the gross inequities of power, and the abuses and the exploitation. And he gave me some materials to contemplate crusading about. ” [28] Journalist Nat Hentoffsaid, “A lot of journalists of his generation and the generation,” he said, “was more likely to be the most honorable term in journalism. And the fact that he was there made them feel like whores if they did not do more. ” [28]

People like as Peggy Charren [43] and IF Stone [12] also claimed influence from Seldes.

Politics and later career

It has been alleged that the Communist Party has been a member of the Communist Party since 1940, valued for his major connections in Washington. [44] [45]

Seldes later Wrote That In Fact Was founded at the instigation of the US Communist Party leadership, he wrote goal que le Party Worked through His partner Bruce Minton (Also Known As Richard Bransten) without His knowledge. Seldes wrote that he was unaware that Minton was a party member who received the funds to start in Fact from Communist Party. [ab] [46] While His political positions Often Were similar to Those in the Party in 1940, by 1948 Seldes Was writing in positive terms of the anti-Soviet socialism of Marshal Tito in Yugoslavia, earning _him_ the wrath of Many Communist Party loyalists In the United States. As the Cold War took shape at the end of the decade, Seldes lost readership from both the Communists and the anti-liberal-left feeling that was sweeping the country, [47] The nationwide atmosphere of McCarthyism and red-baiting further Top diminished His Subscribers’ numbers, and He Was forced to close viable financially In Fact , qui never accepted advertising, in October 1950.

Senator Joseph McCarthy Subpoenaed Seles in 1953, Seldes vehemently denied Communist Party membership and was “cleared” by McCarthy’s Senate subcommittee, but Selde’s greatest influence on readers had already passed. [48] Seldes did publish Tell the Truth and Run in 1953, but otherwise found it difficult to publish his work throughout the 1950s. He was approached, however, by an old friend and colleague, IF Stone, for advice on how to start a small independent investigative newspaper. IF Stone’s Weekly premiered in 1953, picking up where Seldes had left off. [49]

Largely dropping his own writing, he developed an anthology called The Great Quotations and received rejections from 20 publishers. It sold more than a million copies when it appeared in 1961. [12]

In a letter to Time magazine in 1974, he appraised the state of American journalism as much improved in his lifetime: [50]

The press deserved the attacks and Criticisms of Will Irwin (1910) and Upton Sinclair (1920) and the muckrakers Who Followed, and it needs today the watchdog and gadfly activities of the new critical weeklies, goal all in all it is now a better medium Of mass information …. The 1972 Watergate disclosures, it is true, but I remember Teapot Dome when only one of our 1,750 dailies (the Albuquerque Morning Journal) dared to Tell the truth about White House corruption. We have come a long way since.

He published Never Tire of Protesting in 1968 and Even the Gods Can not Change History in 1976.

The Association for Education in Journalism gave him an award for professional excellence in 1980. [1] In 1981 he received the George Polk Award for his life’s work. [13]

He wrote his autobiography, Witness to a Century in 1987. He wrote: “And so [my brother] Gilbert and I, brought up without a formal religion, remained within our lifetimes just what Father was, freethinkers. Dissenters and perhaps Utopians. “Everything has been done, and nothing has been said about it.

In 1981 Seldes Appeared in Warren Beatty ‘s Reds , a movie about the life of journalist John Reed . Seldes appears as one of the film’s “witnesses” commenting on the historical events depicted in the film.

(FAIR). The results of this study are summarized in Table 1 . [14]

Martin A. Lee and Norman Solomon unreliable Sources : “The most sacred cow of the press is the press itself.” [14] [51]

Death and legacy

Seldes died on July 2, 1995 at age 104 in Windsor, Vermont . A delegation of journalists attended the memorial service at his home in Hartland-4-Corners, Vermont , read from his books and watched an excerpt from a documentary film-in-progress on Seldes. [52]

The documentary film, Tell the Truth and Run: George Seldes and the American Press , [53] was produced and directed by Rick Goldsmith and premiered the following year. A man who had been largely forgotten for four decades. The film is a series of short stories on the subject. The film was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Documentary Feature, and received many other accolades, including the John O’Connor Film Award from the American Historical Association. [54] [55] [56]


aa. ^ Asked how to say His Name, he Told the Literary Digest in 1936. “Nine persons out of ten mispronounce our name If it Review: had an n INSTEAD of year s . As the final letter there Would Be No difficulty The name is pronounced like Selden with the letter last year s “: SEL -duhss . [4]
ab. ^ According To Minton the Party wanted an American release of Claud Cockburn ‘s muckraking London political weekly, The Week . [46]


  1. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e f g h i j k l Dicke, William (July 3, 1995). “George Seldes Is Dead at 104, An Early, Fervent Press Critic” . The New York Times . Retrieved January 11, 2011 .
  2. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e Guttenplan, John (July 14, 1995). “OBITUARY: George Seldes” . The Independent . London . Retrieved January 29,2015 .
  3. ^ Jump up to:a b c d Lovegood, Norman D. “Speaking Truth to Power” . Hermes Press . Retrieved September 22, 2014 .
  4. ^ Jump up to:a b Seldes, George (2011). Great Thoughts, Revised and Updated . Random House Publishing Group. pp. Forward . Retrieved 3 August 2014 .
  5. Jump up^ Fordham, Helen (November 17, 2016). “Subversive Voices: George Seldes and Mid-Twentieth-Century Muckraking” . American Journalism . 33 (4): 424-441. Doi : 10.1080 / 08821127.2016.1241643 . Retrieved January 29, 2017 .
  6. Jump up^ American journalism . American Journalism Historians Association. Winter 1996. p. 11.
  7. Jump up^ Seldes, George. China Monthly Review, Volume 76 . East Asia: John W. Powell . p. 106. I agree with Walter Lippmann who has decade ago wrote that the crisis of democracy is a crisis in journalism, and again I agree that ‘those who think the sole cause is corruption,’ are wrong.
  8. ^ Jump up to:a b Seldes, George (1987). Witness to a Century . p. 100.
  9. ^ Jump up to:a b Solomon, Norman ; Cohen, Jeff (July 1995). “Great Press Critic Leaves a Legacy of Courage” . . Political Research Associates . Retrieved January 11, 2011 .
  10. ^ Jump up to:a b Colonel McCormick, Robert ; et al. (March 5, 1956). “Letters” . TIME . Retrieved January 11, 2011 .
  11. ^ Jump up to:a b “Foreign News: Ousted” . TIME . August 10, 1925 . Retrieved January 11, 2011 .
  12. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e f g h Guttenplan, John (July 14, 1995). “Obituary: George Seldes” . The Independent . Retrieved January 11, 2011 .
  13. ^ Jump up to:a b “Previous Award Winners” . Long Island University . Retrieved January 16, 2011 .
  14. ^ Jump up to:a b c Berlet, Chip . “Press Critic and Antifascist George Seldes Dies at 104 in Vermont” . . Political Research Associates . Retrieved January 12, 2011 .
  15. Jump up^ Reis, JC “Alliance” . Jewish Encyclopedia . West Conshohocken, PA: . Retrieved March 31, 2011 .
  16. Jump up^ Pearl, Lesley (March 21, 1997). “Fund-raising effort sends local filmmaker to the Oscars” . . San Francisco: San Francisco Jewish Community Publications Inc . Retrieved March 31, 2011 .
  17. Jump up^ Kammen, Michael (March 1996). The Lively Arts: Gilbert Seldes and the Transformation of Cultural Criticism in the United States . Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 17. ISBN  0-19-509868-4 .
  18. Jump up^ Kammen, Michael (March 1996). The Lively Arts: Gilbert Seldes and the Transformation of Cultural Criticism in the United States . Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 18-19. ISBN  0-19-509868-4 .
  19. Jump up^ Seldes, George. “Chapter 1: First Encounter with the Goddess of History: Saint-Mihiel”. Even the Gods Can not Change History .
  20. Jump up^ “Italy: Censorship Bared” . TIME . October 31, 1927 . Retrieved January 12, 2011 .
  21. ^ Jump up to:a b Gibson, Donald (2004). Communication, Power, and Media . Hauppauge, NY: Nova Science. p. 14.
  22. Jump up^ “Fiction: Recent Books” . TIME . September 23, 1935 . Retrieved January 11, 2011 . FREEDOM OF THE PRESS-George Seldes-Bobbs-Merrill ($ 2.75). A rambling but effective attack on US newspapers, charging coloring, distortion or suppression of vital news, containing some enlightening instances of journalistic malpractices as George Seldes encountered in his career.
  23. Jump up^ “The Press: Howe Behind the News” . TIME . November 25, 1940 . Retrieved January 11, 2011 .
  24. Jump up^ “The Press: Suppression of News” . TIME . January 23, 1939 . Retrieved January 11, 2011 . The Seldes book rambles, relies heavily on Innuendo. It has a large store of previously published facts, many a windy, publisher-baiting tirade.
  25. Jump up^ “Contradicts Ickes on Tobacco Story” . The New York Times . January 14, 1939 . Retrieved January 12, 2011 .
  26. Jump up^ “Religion: Seldes vs. Rome” . TIME . November 7, 1929 . Retrieved January 11, 2011 .
  27. Jump up^ In Fact , Volume 1, Issue Number 1
  28. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e f “Tell the Truth and Run: George Seldes and the American Press” . Kovno Communications . Retrieved October 9, 2014 .
  29. Jump up^ O’Reilly, Kenneth (1982). “A New Deal for the FBI: The Roosevelt Administration, Crime Control, and National Security.” Journal of American History . 69 (649): 638. doi : 10.2307 / 1903141 .
  30. ^ Jump up to:a b Lasar, Matthew (1998). ” ‘ Right Out in Public’: Pacifica Radio, the Cold War, and the Political Origins of Alternative Media. Pacific Historical Review . 67 (537): 513-541. Doi : 10.2307 / 3641185 .
  31. Jump up^ “The Press: The Beaver’s World” . TIME . April 26, 1948 . Retrieved January 11, 2011 .
  32. Jump up^ Seldes, George (1947). One Thousand Americans . New York: Boni & Gaer. pp. 79, 179-80, 208-10, 287-92.
  33. Jump up^ Boylan, James; Cottrell, Robert C. (1993). “Izzy: A Biography of IF Stone”. Journal of American History . Oxford University Press and Organization of American Historians. 80 (1157-8): 1157. doi :10.2307 / 2080554 .
  34. Jump up^ Ogden, August Raymond (1943). The Dies Committee: A Study of the Special House Committee for the Investigation of One-American Activities, 1938-1944 . Washington, DC: Catholic University of America Press. pp. 55, 64, 84.
  35. Jump up^ Eulau, Heinz (1947). “Proselytizing in the Catholic Press”. Public Opinion Quarterly . 1 : 195. doi : 10.1086 / 265843 .
  36. Jump up^ Jenkins, Philip (1995). ” ‘ It Can not Happen Here’: Fascism and Right-Wing Extremism in Pennsylvania, 1933-1942″. Pennsylvania History . 62 . p. 52.
  37. Jump up^ Langer, William W. (1934). “Some Recent Books on International Relations”. Foreign Affairs . 12 . p. 690.
  38. Jump up^ Detzell, Charles F. (1963). “Benito Mussolini: A Guide to the Biographical Literature”. Journal of Modern History . 35 : 345. doi: 10.1086 / 243817 .
  39. Jump up^ Langer, William W. (1936). “Some Recent Books on International Relations” . Foreign Affairs . 14 . Council on Foreign Relations. p. 358 . Retrieved September 24, 2014 .
  40. Jump up^ Doenecke, Justus D .; Edwards, John Carver (1992). “Berlin Calling: American Broadcasters in Service to the Third Reich” . International History Review . London: Taylor & Francis. 14 (600-2). Doi : 10.2307 / 40106635 . Retrieved September 24, 2014 .
  41. Jump up^ Holhut, Randolph T. “The Forgotten Man of American Journalism: A Brief Biography of George Seldes” . Brasscheck . Retrieved August 20, 2013 . AJ Liebling in his classic book 1947 book, ‘The Wayward Pressman’. ‘He makes too much of the failure of the newspapers to print exactly what George Seldes would have if they were the managing editor. But he is a useful citizen. (In fact) is a fine little gadfly, making an enormous effort for one man and his wife.
  42. Jump up^ McCarthy, Colman (July 11, 1995). “George Seldes: Giant of Journalism” . The Washington Post . Retrieved September 1,2011 .
  43. Jump up^ McCarthy, Colman (January 28, 1992). “Children’s Crusade Has a Happy Ending” . The Washington Post . Retrieved September 1, 2011 .
  44. Jump up^ Haynes, John Earl ; Vassiliev, Alexander ; Klehr, Harvey (2009). Spies: The Rise and Fall of the KGB in America . New Haven: Yale University Press. p. 169. ISBN  0-300-12390-6 . Retrieved January 9, 2011 .
  45. Jump up^ Vassiliev, Alexander; Redko, Philip; Haynes, John Earl (January 9, 2011). “Black Notebook” (PDF) . Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars. p. 512 . Retrieved January 9,2011 .
  46. ^ Jump up to:a b Seldes, George (1968). Never Tire of Protesting . New York: L. Stuart. pp. 53, 56, 195, 197, 198, 200, 201, 203, 204.
  47. Jump up^ Seldes, George (1968). Never Tire of Protesting . New York: L. Stuart.
  48. Jump up^ Seldes, George; et al. (May 31, 1954). “Letters” . TIME . Retrieved January 11, 2011 .
  49. Jump up^ Goldsmith, Rick (1996). Tell the Truth and Run: George Seldes and the American Press . Kovno Communications.
  50. Jump up^ Seldes, George; et al. (July 29, 1974). “Letters” . TIME . Retrieved January 11, 2011 .
  51. Jump up^ Lee, Martin A .; Solomon, Norman (1990). Unreliable Sources: A Guide to Detecting Bias in the Media . New York: Carol Publishers.
  52. Jump up^ Solomon, Norman ; Cohen, Jeff . “Seldes Remembrance Committee” . . Political Research Associates . Retrieved January 11, 2011 .
  53. Jump up^ “Tell the Truth and Run: George Seldes and the American Press (1996)” . Internet Movie Database . Retrieved January 11, 2011.
  54. Jump up^ “John E. O’Connor Film Award” . American Historical Association. March 25, 2013 . Retrieved August 15, 2013 .
  55. Jump up^ “Tell the Truth and Run: George Seldes and the American Press” . Brasscheck . Retrieved August 15, 2013 .
  56. Jump up^ “Tell the Truth and Run: George Seldes and the American Press” . Kovno Communications . Retrieved August 15, 2013 .

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