freelancer or freelance worker is a term commonly used for a person who is self-employed and is not necessarily committed to a particular employ long-term. Freelance workers are représentée par Sometimes a company Gold temporary agency That freelance labor resells to customers; Others work independently or use professional associations or websites to get work.

While the term ” independent contractor ” would be used in a higher register of English to designate the tax and employment classes of this type of worker, the term freelancing is most common in culture and creative industries. [1]

Fields, professions and industries Where freelancing is predominant include music , writing, acting , computer programming , web design , translating and Illustrating , and other forms of pieces work qui Some cultural theorists Consider as central to the cognitive-cultural economy . [2]

Freelance practices and compensation

According to the 2012 Freelance Industry Report compiled on North America freelancing, freelance, freelance, and freelance writing. 20% of freelancers listed their primary skills as design. Web development (5.5%), and marketing (4%). [3] Elance , a web platform that connects freelancers with contractors, surveyed its members and 39% listed writing and editing as their main skill set. [4]

Depending on the industry, freelance work practices vary and have changed over time. In some industries such as consulting, freelancers may require clients to sign written contracts . While in journalism or writing, freelancers may work for free or do work “on spec” to build their reputations or a relationship with a publication. Some freelancers may provide written estimates of work and demand deposits from customers.

</s></s> </s></s> </s></s> </s></s> </s></s> </s></s> </s></s> </s></s> </s></s> </s></s> </s></s> </s></s> </s> </s> Freelancers may charge by the day, hour, a piece rate, or on a per-project basis. Instead of a flat rate or fee, some freelancers have adopted a value-based pricing method based on the perceived value of the results to the client. By custom, payment arrangements may be upfront, percentage upfront, or upon completion. For more complex projects, a contract may set a payment schedule based on milestones or outcomes. One of the drawbacks of freelancing is that there is no guaranteed payment, and the work can be highly precarious .

In this article, we present the results of the study of the “freelance” They typically retain the copyright to their works and sell the rights to publishers in time-limited contracts. Traditionally, works would be submitted to publishers, where they would become part of the slushpile , and would either offer an acceptance letter or a rejection slip .

People who create intellectual property under a work for hire situation (according to the publishers ‘or other customers’ specifications) are sometimes referred to as “independent contractors” or other similar terms. Creators give their rights to their works in a “works made for hire” situation, a category of intellectual property defined in US copyright law – Section 101, Copyright Act of 1976 (17 USC §101). The protection of the intellectual property rights that give the creator of the work are considered to have been sold to a work for hire agreement. Of employees, however in a contractual rather than employment relationship. [5]


The total number of freelancers in USA is inaccurate, as the most recent governmental report on independent contractors was published in 2005 by the US Department of Labor’s Bureau of Labor Statistics . At that time, there were approximately 10.3 million United States workers (7.4% of the workforce) employed as independent contractors of all sorts. [6] In 2011, Jeffrey Eisenach , an economist at George Mason University, estimated that number of freelancers had grown by one million. Citation needed ] While in 2012, the Aberdeen Group , a private research company, estimated that 26% (about 81 million) of the United States was a workforce contingent , A category of casual labor that includes freelancing. [7]

In 2013, the Freelancers Union Estimated That 1 in 3 workers in the United States Were self-employed (Approximately 42 million), with more than four million (43%) Of Those self-employed workers members of the creative class , a stratum of Worker associated with freelance industries, such as knowledge workers, technologists, professional writers, artists, entertainers, and media workers. [8]

The total number of freelancers in UK is also inaccurate; However, figures from the Office of National Statistics show that people working mainly at or from home rose from 9.2% in 2001 to 10.7% in 2011. [9] It has been estimated, however, that there are approximately 1.7 million freelancers in the UK . [10]

Freelancing is a gendered form of work. [3] The 2012 Freelance Industry Report, which estimates that more than 71% of freelancers are women between the ages of 30 and 50. Surveys of other specific areas of freelancing have similar trends. Demographic research on Amazon Mechanical Turk reveals that the majority of North American Mechanical Turk workers are women. [11] Catherine McKercher’s research on journalism as a profession has showcased that while media organizations are still male-dominated, the reverse is true for freelance journalists and editors, whose ranks are mainly women. [12]


Freelancers have a variety of reasons for freelancing, the perceived benefits by gender, industry, and lifestyle. For instance, the 2012 Freelance Industry Report reported that men and women freelance for different reasons. Female survey respondents indicated that they prefer the scheduling freedom and flexibility that freelancing offers, while male and female respondents indicated they freelance to follow or pursue personal passions. [3] Freelancing also allows people to obtain higher levels of employment in isolated communities. [13]

Freelancing is also taken up by workers who have been laid-off, who can not find full-time employment, [3] or for those industries as such journalism which are relying increasingly on contingent labor rather than full-time staff. [14] Freelancers also consist of students trying to make ends meet during the semester. Freelancers, Freelancers, Freelancers and Freelancers.


Freelancing, like other forms of casual labor , can be precarious work . Websites, books, portals and organizations for freelancers often get a steady work stream. Citation needed ] Beside the lack of job security, many freelancers also report the ongoing hassle of dealing with employers who do not pay on time and the possibility of long periods without work. Additionally, freelancers do not receive employment benefits such as a pension, sick leave , paid holidays, bonuses or health insurance , which can be a serious hardship for freelancers residing in countries such as the US without universal health care . [15]

Freelancers often earn less than their counterparts. While most freelancers have at least ten years of experience prior to working independently, [3] experienced freelancers do not always earn an income equal to that of full-time employment. Feedback from members suggests that web portals such as tends to attract low paying customers that, although demanding very high standards, pay ~ $ 10 per hour or less. Low-cost $ 1- $ 2 per hour. Because most projects require bidding, professionals will not bid because they refuse to work at such rates. This has the effect of reducing the overall quality of the services provided.

According to researchers in the United States, the Canadian Journal of Information and Communication Technology (ICT). While the Canadian full-time freelancer is female, between 35-55, holding a college diploma and often a graduate degree, she typically earns $ 29,999 Canadian dollars before taxes. Meanwhile, a staff journalist of similar age and experience level working full-time at Outlets Such As the Ottawa Citizen or Montreal Gazette newspapers, earned at least $ 63,500 Canadian dollars That year, the top scale rate Negotiated by the union, The Newspaper Guild -Communications Workers of America. [14] Given the gendered stratification of journalism, With more women working as freelancers than men, this disparity in income can be interpreted as a form of gender pay gap . The Professional Writers Association of Canada is a freelance writer and a freelance writer. [16]

Working from home is a family-oriented, family-oriented, family-oriented, family-oriented, family-oriented, family-oriented, In their paid work time. [17] [18] For instance, three years of ethnographic research on teleworkers in Australia conducted by Melissa Gregg, a Principal Engineer and Researcher in Residence for the Intel Science and Technology Center for Social Computing at UC Irvine , And the quality of life and the quality of life in the home. [19]

Impact of the Internet

The Internet has opened up many freelance opportunities, and has contributed to service sector growth in many economies. [20] Offshore outsourcing , online outsourcing and crowdsourcing are heavily linking on the Internet to provide economical access to remote workers, and frequently leverage technology to manage workflow to and from the employ. Much freelance work is being outsourced to developing countries outside the United States and Europe.

Online freelance marketplaces are websites that match buyers and sellers of services provided via the internet. Buyers can buy at a fixed price or at an hourly rate. These marketplaces allow people to sign up remotely for freelance assignments and get paid through a merchant account.

The Internet also allows many freelancers to be interviewed and hired without a meeting. This facilitates long distance business relationships all over the world, but can provide a challenge in screening applicants. Hiring more than one applicant for a short test assignment after the interview is now a common extra step in the hiring process. Citation needed ]

Freelance jobs in the areas of writing , editing, translation, indexing, software development , website design , advertising , open innovation , information technology , and business process outsourcing . Freelance journalists, for example, may find it easier to start their own or shared news blogs , with many blogs growing into highly trafficked and competitive news websites capable of hiring dedicated staff and other talent.

Changes to the publishing industry since the 1980s have resulted in an increase in copy editing of book and journal manuscripts and proofreading of types and manuscripts being outsourced to freelance copy editors and proofreaders.

Online activists, defending different social and political causes, are also freelancers freelancers or freelance politicians. [21]

Legal aspects

Many periodicals and newspapers offer the option of ghost signing, when a freelance writer signs with an editor but their name is not listed on the byline of their article (s). This article is about the author of this article. In some countries this can lead to taxation issues (eg so-called IR35 violations in the UK). Ghost signing is a freelancer or employee in the US.

Freelancers often must handle contracts, legal issues, accounting, marketing, and other business functions by themselves. If they do choose to pay for professional services, they can sometimes turn into significant out-of-pocket expenses . Working hours can extend beyond the standard working day and working week.

The European Commission does not define “freelancers” in any legislative text. However, the European Commission defines a self-employed person as someone: “pursuing a gainful activity for their own account, under the conditions laid down by national law”. In the exercise of such an activity, the personal element of special importance and such exercise. This definition comes from Directive (2010/41 / EU) on the application of the principle of equal treatment between men and women engaged in an activity in a self-employed capacity. [22]

The European Forum of Independent Professionals defines freelancers as: “a highly-skilled subset of self-employed workers, without employers nor employees, offering specialized services of an intellectual and knowledge-based nature”. Independent professionals work on a flexible basis in a range of creative, managerial, scientific and technical occupations; They are not a homogeneous group and as such, they can not be considered or investigated as a whole. They are characterized by a large portion of autonomy, a high labor productivity, knowledge intensive performance, social commitment and a large dose of entrepreneurship and specialization.

In Europe , the perceived disadvantages of being freelancers have led the European Union to research the area, producing draft papers citation needed ] that would, if enforced, make it illegal for companies or organizations to employ freelancers directly, Benefits such as pension contributions and holiday pay. In the UK, where the terms of integration into the EU have and are being hotly debated, this would lead to a significant reshaping of the way. Employers will be required to give freelancers the right to work freelancers. HOWEVER, The White Papers that recommend the adoption of EU legislation in the EU. Citation needed ] The legal definition of a sole trader requires that he / she should have more than one client or customer which promotes the freelancing ethos.

In the US in 2009, federal and state agencies Began Their Increasing oversight of freelancers and other workers Whom Employers classify as independent contractors . The US Government Accountability Office (GAO) [23] recommended that the Secretary of Labor have its Wage and Hour Division “focus on misclassification of employees as independent contractors during targeted investigations.” The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the various types of compensation that are available to employees and their employees.

At the same time, this increased enforcement is affecting companies whose business models are based on non-employed workers, as well as independent professionals who have chosen to work as independent contractors. For example, book publishing companies have traditionally outsourced certain tasks like indenting and proofreading to individuals working as independent contractors. Self-employed accountants and attorneys have traditionally hired out their services. The US Internal Revenue Service [24] offers some guidance on what constitutes self-employment , but states have inacted stricter laws to address how independent contractors should be defined. For example, In Massachusetts law [25] states that companies can hire independent contractors only to perform work that is “outside the usual course of business of the employer,” meaning employees working on the company’s core business must be classified as employees. According to this statute, [26] a consultant as an employee. The firm could, however, hire an independent contractor working as an electrician, interior decorator, or painter. This raises questions about the common practice of consulting, because a consultant firm or self-employed consultant to address business-specific needs that are not ”


Although it is commonly attributed to Sir Walter Scott (1771-1832) in Ivanhoe (1820) to describe a “medieval mercenary warrior” or “free lance ” (indicating that the lance is not sworn to any lord’s services is available free of charge), [27] was OCCURS previous appearance in Thomas N. Brown in The Life and Times of Hugh Miller (1809)., [28] p 185. It changed to a figurative noun around the 1860s and was reconnu As a verb in 1903 by authorities in etymology as the Oxford English Dictionary .(Freelance journalist), a freelance writer, a freelance writer, a freelance writer, a freelance writer, and a freelance writer. .

See also

  • Freelance marketplace
  • Freelancers Union
  • Independent contractor
  • Mercenary
  • Misclassification of employees as independent contractors
  • Recruitment advertising
  • Self-employment


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