Employment is a relationship entre two parts , usually based were contract Where work is paid for, Where one party, qui May be a corporation , for profit , not-for-profit organization , co-operative or other entity is the use and the Other is the employee .  Employees work in return for payment , which may be in the form of an hourly wage, by piecework or an annual salary , depending on the type of work. Employees in some fields or sectors may receive gratuities , Bonus payment or stock options . In some types of employment, employees may receive benefits in addition to payment. Benefits can include health insurance , housing , disability insurance or use of a gym. Employment is typically governed by employment laws or regulations or legal contracts.
Employees and employers
An employee Contributes labor and expertise to an endeavor of year to use gold of a person Conducting a business or undertaking (PCBU)  and is usually hired to perform specific duties qui are packaged into a job . In a corporate context, an employee is a person who is hired to provide services to a company on a regular basis in exchange for compensation and who does not provide these services as part of an independent business . 
The aim of this paper is to evaluate the role of the manager in the implementation of the project. Employers must balance their interests as they work together to achieve a profitable and productive employment relationship.
Finding employees or employment
The main ways for Employers to find workers and for people to find jobs Employers are via listings in newspapers (via classified advertising ) and online, aussi called Expired job boards . Employers and job seekers find aussi Often Each Other through professional recruitment consultants qui Receive a commission from the use to find, screen and select suitable candidates. However, in the case of an employee who is not a member of the Board of Directors,  A more traditional approach is with a “Help Wanted” sign in the establishment (usually hung on a window or door  gold Placed on a store counter).  Evaluating different employees can be quite laborious but setting up different techniques to analyze their skill to measure their talents within the field can be best through assessments.  Employer and potential employee commonly take the additional step of getting to know each other through the process of job interview .
Training and development
Training and development to work with a newly-recruited staff. An appropriate level of training and development helps to improve employee’s job satisfaction . 
There are a number of ways in which they are paid, including by the hourly wages, by piecework , by yearly salary , or by gratuities . In the case of a vacancy, the employee may be paid a commission , a percentage of the value of the goods or services that they have sold. In some fields and professions (eg, executive jobs), employees may be eligible for a bonus if they meet certain targets. Some executives and employees may be paid in stocks or stock options ,
Employee benefits are payable in lieu of wages or salaries. The benefits can include: housing (employee-employee, life insurance, etc.), disability income protection, retirement benefits, daycare, tuition reimbursement, paid and unpaid ), Social security, profit sharing, funding of education, and other specialized benefits. In some cases, the benefits may include meals. Employee benefits can improve the relationship between employee and employee and turnover staff. 
Organizational justice is an employee’s perception and judgment of employing treatment in the context of fairness or justice. The resulting actions to influence the employee-employer relationship is also a part of organizational justice. 
Employees can organize into trade or labor unions , which represent the work force to collectively bargain with the management of organizations about working, and contractual conditions and services. 
Usually, you can use the term “relationship”. This is referred to as at-will employment . The two-party contract entre les SPECIFIED the Responsibilities of Each When ending the relationship and May include requirements Such As instruction periods, severance pay , and security Measures.  In some occupations, notably teaching, civil servants, university professors, and some orchestra jobs, some employees may have tenure , which means they can not be dismissed at will. Another type of termination is a layoff .
Wage labor is the socioeconomic relationship between a worker and an employee, where the worker sells his labor under a formal or informal employment contract . These transactions usually Occur in a labor market Where wages are market Determined.   In exchange for the wages paid, the work product Generally Becomes the undifferentiated property of the use, except for special cases Such As the vesting of intellectual property patents in the United States Where patent rights are usually vested in the original Personal inventor. A wage laborer is a person whose primary means of income is from the sale of his or her labor in this way. 
In modern mixed economies such as the OECD countries , it is currently the dominant form of work arrangement. ALTHOUGH MOST work OCCURS Following this structure, the wage work arrangements of CEOs , professional employees, and professional contract workers are Sometimes conflated with class assignments , so that “wage labor” is regarded to apply only to unskilled, semi-skilled or manual labor . 
Wage labor, as institutionalized under today’s market economic systems, has-been Criticized,  Especially by mainstream Both socialists and anarcho-syndicalists ,     using the pejorative term wage slavery .   Socialists draw parallels between the trade of labor as a commodity and slavery . Cicero is also known to have such parallels. 
The American philosopher John Dewey ” industrial feudalism ” is replaced by “industrial democracy “, politics will be “the shadow cast on society by big business”.  Thomas Ferguson has been postulated in his investment theory of party competition as the undemocratic nature of economic institutions under capitalism causes elections to become occasions when blocks of investors coalesce and compete to control the state. 
Australian employment has been governed by the Fair Work Act since 2009. 
Bangladesh Association of International Recruiting Agencies ( BAIRA ) is an association of national level with its international reputation of co-operation and welfare of the migrant workforce as well as its approximately 1200 members in collaboration with and support from the Government of Bangladesh. 
In the Canadian province of Ontario , formal complaints can be made to the Ministry of Labor . In the province of Quebec , grievances can be filed with the Labor Standards Commission . 
Pakistan has Labor Contract, Minimum Wage and Provident Funds Acts. Contract laboratories in Pakistan must be paid minimum wage and certain facilities are to be provided to labor. However, the Acts are not yet fully implemented. 
India has Contract Labor, Minimum Wage, Provident Funds Act and various other acts to comply with. Contract labor in India must be paid minimum wage and certain facilities are to be provided to labor. However, there is still a large amount of work to be done to fully implement the Act. 
In the Philippines , private employment is regulated under the Labor Code of the Philippines by the Department of Labor and Employment . 
In the United Kingdom, employment contracts are categorized by the government in the following types: 
- Fixed-term contract : last for a certain length of time, are set in advance, when a specific event takes place.
- Full-time or part-time contract : has no definite length of time, can be terminated by either party, is to accomplish a specific task, specified number of hours. 
- Agency staff
- Freelancers , Consultants , Contractors
- Zero-hour contracts
For Purposes of US federal income tax withholding, 26 USC § 3401 (c) Provides a definition for the term “employee” specific to chapter 24 of the Internal Revenue Code :
“For the purpose of this chapter, the term” employee “includes an officer, employee, or officer of the United States, a State or any political subdivision thereof, or The term “employee” includes an officer of a corporation. ”  This definition does not exclude all those who are commonly known as ’employees’. “Similarly, Latham’s instruction which indicated that under 26 USC § 3401 (c) the category of ’employee’ does not include a preposterous reading of the statute. It shall be understood as follows: “The term”
Employees are often contrasted with independent contractors , especially when there is dispute as to the worker’s entitlement to have matching taxes paid, workers compensation and unemployment insurance benefits. However, in September 2009, the court case of Brown v. J. Kaz, Inc. Ruled That independent contractors are Regarded as employees for the purpose of discrimination Laws If They work for the use was regular basis, and Said employ direct the time, place and Manner of employment. 
In non-union work environments, in the United States, unjust termination complaints can be made to the United States Department of Labor . 
Labor unions are legally recognized as representatives of workers in many industries in the United States. Their activity today centers on collective bargaining over wages, benefits, and working conditions for their members, and on their members in disputes with management over violations of contract provisions. Larger unions also typically engage in lobbying and election at the state and federal level. 
Most unions in America are aligned with one of the two largest umbrella organizations: the AFL-CIO created in 1955, and the Change to Win Federation which split from the AFL-CIO in 2005. Both advocate policies and legislation States and Canada, and take an active role in politics. The AFL-CIO is particularly concerned with global trade issues. 
According to Swedish law,  there are three types of employment.
- Test employment ( swe: Provanställning ), where the employer hires a person for a test period of 6 months maximum. The employment can be at any time without giving any reason. This type of employment can be offered only once per use and employee combination. Usually a job or a job. 
- Time limited employment ( swe: Tidsbegränsad anställning ). The employer hires a person for a specified time. Usually they are extended for a new period. Total maximum two years per employee.
- Normal employment ( swe: Tillsvidareanställning / Fast anställning ), which has no time limit. It can still be ended for two Reasons: personal reason , immediate end of employment only for strong Reasons Such As crime gold Lack of work tasks ( swe: Arbetsbrist ), cancellation of employment, usually Because of bad income for the company. There is a cancellation period of 1-6 months, and rules for how to select employees, basically those with shortest employment time will be canceled first. 
There are no laws about minimum salary in Sweden. Instead there are agreements between employers and unions concerning minimum wages, and other employment conditions.
There is a kind of employment contract qui is common but not regulated in law, and That Is Hour employment ( swe: Timanställning ), qui peut être Normal employment (unlimited), aim the work time is unregulated and immediate Decided per need basis. The employee is expected to be answering the phone and come to work when needed, eg when someone is ill and absent from work. They will receive salary only for actual work time and may in reality be fired for no reason by not being called anymore. This type of contract is common in the public sector. 
Younger age workers
Young workers are at Higher Risk for occupational injury and face some occupational hazards Has A Higher spleen; This is due to their employment in high-risk industries. For example, in the United States, young people are injured at work at twice the rate of their older counterparts.  These workers are also at higher risk for motor vehicle accidentsat work, due to lower work experience, and higher rates of distracted driving.   To mitigate this risk, those under the age of 17 are restricted from certain types of driving, including transporting people and goods under certain circumstances. 
High-risk industries for young workers include agriculture, restaurants, waste management, and mining.   In the United States, those under the age of 18 are restricted from certain jobs that are deemed dangerous under the Fair Labor Standards Act . 
Youth employment programs are most effective when they include both theoretical classroom training and hands-on training with work placements. 
Older age workers
Those older than the statutory defined retirement age may continue to work, either out of enjoyment or necessity. However, on the nature of the job, older workers may need to transition into a physical injury. Working past retirement age also has positive effects, because it gives a sense of purpose and allows people to maintain social networks and activity levels.  Older workers are often found to be discriminated against by employers. 
Employment is no guarantee of escaping poverty , the International Labor Organization (ILO) Estimates That Many’ve got 40% of workers are poor, not earning enough to keep Their families above-the $ 2 a day poverty line .  For instance, in India most of the chronically poor are wage earners in formal employment, because their jobs are insecure and low paid and offer no chance to accumulate wealth to avoid risks.  According to the UNRISD , increasing labor productivity appears to have a negative impact on job creation: in the 1960s, a 1% increase in output per worker was associated with a reduction in employment growth of 0.07% By the first decade of this century.  Both are increasingly needed to increase their productivity. Increase in labor productivity in the labor market, which is why it is a good idea to promote the creation of “quality” and “quantity” in labor market policies.  This approach does highlight how higher productivity has helped reduce poverty in East Asia , but the negative impact is beginning to show.  In Vietnam , for example, Employment growth has slowed while productivity growth has continued.  In addition , productivity increases in the United States , where the gap between productivity and wages has been rising since the 1980s. 
Researchers at the Overseas Development Institute argue that there are differences across economic sectors in creating employment that reduces poverty.  24 instances of growth were examined, in which 18 reduced poverty. This study showed that other sectors were just as important in reducing unemployment , such as manufacturing .  The services sector is most effective at translating productivity growth into employment growth. Agriculture provides a safety net for jobs and economic buffer when other sectors are struggling. 
|Growth, employment and poverty |
|Growth episodes associated with falling poverty rates|
|Growth episodes associated with no fall in poverty rates|
Models of the employment relationship
Scholars conceptualize the employment relationship in various ways.  A key assumption is the extent to which the employment relationship necessarily includes conflicts of interests between employers and employees, and the form of such conflicts.  In economic theorizing, the labor market mediates all such conflicts that employers and employees who enter into an employment relationship are assumed to find this arrangement in their own self-interest. In human resource management theorizing, employers and employees are assumed to have shared interests (or unity of interests, hence the label “unitarism”). Any conflicts that exist as a manifestation of poor human resource management or interpersonal clashes such as personality conflicts, Both of which can and should be managed away. From the perspective of pluralist industrial relations, the employment relationship is based on a plurality of stakeholders with legitimate interests (hence the label “pluralism”), and some conflicts of interests are seen as inherent in the employment relationship . Lastly, the critical paradigm emphasizes antagonistic conflicts of interests between various groups (eg, the competing capitalist and working classes in a Marxist framework). As a result, there are four common models of employment:  The employment relationship is based on a variety of interests and interests (eg, hence the label “pluralism”), and some conflicts of interests are seen as inherent in the employment relationship. Lastly, the critical paradigm emphasizes antagonistic conflicts of interests between various groups (eg, the competing capitalist and working classes in a Marxist framework). As a result, there are four common models of employment:  The employment relationship is based on a variety of interests and interests (eg, hence the label “pluralism”), and some conflicts of interests are seen as inherent in the employment relationship. Lastly, the critical paradigm emphasizes antagonistic conflicts of interests between various groups (eg, the competing capitalist and working classes in a Marxist framework). As a result, there are four common models of employment:  The competing capitalist and working classes in a Marxist framework) that are part of a deeper social conflict of unequal power relations. As a result, there are four common models of employment:  The competing capitalist and working classes in a Marxist framework) that are part of a deeper social conflict of unequal power relations. As a result, there are four common models of employment: 
- Mainstream economics: employment is seen as a mutually advantageous transaction in a free market between self-interested legal and economic equals
- Human resource management (unitarism): employment is a long-term partnership of employees and employers with common interests
- Pluralist industrial relations : a bargaining relationship between businessmen and consumers 
- Critical industrial relations : an empowering relationship between competing groups that is embedded in the socio-politico-economic system.
These models are important because they help people to reassure themselves that they are in a position to make a difference.  For example, human resource management policies are seen in the first view, as essential mechanisms for the alignment of the interests of employees and employers in the second view, as insufficient for looking out for workers ‘In the third view, and as manipulative managerial tools for shaping the ideology and structure of the workplace in the fourth view. 
Literature on the employment impact of economic growth and how it is associated with employment growth at a macro, sector and industry level Was aggregated in 2013. 
Researchers found evidence to suggest growth in manufacturing and services have good impact on employment. They found GDP growth in agriculture to be limited, but had a greater impact.  The impact on job creation by industries / economic activities as well as the extent of the body of evidence and the key studies. For extractives, they have found extensive evidence suggesting growth in the sector has limited impact onemployment. In textiles however, although evidence was low, studies suggest positively positively contributed to job creation. In agri-business and food processing . 
They found That MOST is available literature Focuses OECD and middle-income countries Somewhat, Where economic growth impact has-been shown to be positive is employment. The researchers did not find enough evidence to conclude any impact of growth on employment in LDCs, although some points to the positive impact, others point to limitations. LDC employment. LDC employment. With the exception of the United States and the United States, the United States has been the only country in the world where the United States has been in the process of adopting legislation. 
Researchers have also explored the relationship between employment and illicit activities. Using evidence from Africa, a research team found a program for Liberian ex-fighters. The employment program also reduces the amount of mercenary work in nearby wars. The study concludes that the use of capital inputs or cash payments for peaceful work is reduced. 
Globalization and employment relations
The balance of economic and social equity is the ultimate debate in the field of employment relations .  By meeting the needs of the employer; Generating profits to establish and maintain economic efficiency; Whilst maintaining a balance with the employee and creating social equity that benefits the worker; Proves to be a continuous revolving issue in westernized societies. 
Globalization has effected these issues by creating certain economic factors that disallow or allow various employment issues. Economist Edward Lee (1996) the effects of globalization and summarizes the four major points of concern that affect employment relationships:
- International competition, from the newly industrialized countries , will cause unemployment growth and increased wage disparity for unskilled workers in industrialized countries. Imports from low-wage countries are low-wage countries. 
- Economic liberalization will result in unemployment and wage inequality in developing countries. This happens to job losses in uncompetitive industries outstrip job opportunities in new industries.
- Workers will be forced to accept worsening wages and conditions, as a global labor market results in a “race to the bottom”. Increased international competition to reduce the wages and conditions of workers. 
- Globalization reduces the autonomy of the nation state. Capital is increasingly mobile and the ability of the state to regulate economic activity is reduced.
Lee’s (1996) finds that the percentage of workers who work in a non-tradable environment is very low. As a result, workers are forced to become more skilled and develop sought after trades, or find other means of survival. (Markey, R., et al., 2006), which is based on the results of a study conducted in the United States. ). 
Various youth subcultures-have-been associated with not working, Such As the hippie subculture in the 1960s and 1970s (qui endorsed the idea of “dropping out” of society) and the punk subculture , in qui some members live in anarchist squats (illegal housing) .
One of the alternatives to work is engaging in postsecondary education at a college , university or professional school . One of the major costs of obtaining a postsecondary education is the opportunity cost of forgone wages due to not working. At times when jobs are hard to find, such as during recessions, unemployed individuals may decide to get postsecondary education, because there is an opportunity.
Workplace democracy is the application of democracy in all its forms (including voting systems , debates , democratic structuring , due process , adversarial process , systems of appeal) to the workplace .  
When it comes to self-employment , this is known as self-employment . Self-employment often leads to incorporation . Incorporation offers certain protections of one’s personal assets.  Individuals who are self-employed may own a small business . They may also be considered to be an entrepreneur .
In some countries, individuals who are not able to provide social assistance support (eg, welfare or food stamps ) to enable them to rent housing, buy food, repair or replace household goods.
Workers who are not paid wages, such as volunteers who perform tasks for charities, hospitals or not-for-profit organizations, are generally not considered employed. One exception to this is an internship , an employment situation in which the worker receives training or experience (and possibly college credit) as the chief form of compensation. 
Indentured servitude and slavery
Those who work under obligation for the purpose of fulfilling a debt, such as an indentured servant , or as property of the person or entity they work for, such as a slave , do not receive pay for their services and are not considered employed. Some historians suggest that slavery is older than employment, but both arrangements have existed for all recorded history. Indentured servitude and slavery are not considered compatible with human rights and democracy . 
Notes and references
- ^ Jump up to:a b Stephen Dakin and J. Scott Armstrong (1989). “Predicting job performance: A comparison of expert opinion and research findings” (PDF). International Journal of Forecasting. 5: 187–94. doi:10.1016/0169-2070(89)90086-1.
- Jump up^ Archer, Richard; Borthwick, Kerry; Travers, Michelle; Ruschena, Leo (2014). WHS: A Management Guide (4 ed.). Cengage Learning Australia. pp. 30–31. ISBN 9780170270793. Retrieved 2016-03-30. The most significant definitions are ‘person conducting a business or undertaking’ (PCBU). ‘worker’ and ‘workplace’. […] ‘PCBU’ is a wider ranging term than ’employer’, though this will be what most people understand by it.
- ^ Jump up to:a b Robert A. Ristau (2010). Intro to Business. Cengage Learning. p. 74. ISBN 0538740663.
- Jump up^ J. Mayhew Wainwright (chairman); et al. (1910). Report to the Legislature of the State of New York by the Commission appointed under Chapter 518 of the laws of 1909 to inquire into the question of employers’ liability and other matters. (Report). J. B. Lyon Company. pp. 11,50,144.
- Jump up^ Industrial & Organizational Assessment
- ^ Jump up to:a b Deakin & Wilkinson 2005.
- ^ Jump up to:a b c Marx 1847, Chapter 2.
- ^ Jump up to:a b c d Ellerman 1992.
- ^ Jump up to:a b c d Ostergaard 1997, p. 133.
- Jump up^ Thompson 1966, p. 599.
- Jump up^ Thompson 1966, p. 912.
- ^ Jump up to:a b c Lazonick 1990, p. 37.
- Jump up^ “wage slave”. merriam-webster.com. Retrieved 4 March 2013.
- Jump up^ “wage slave”. dictionary.com. Retrieved 4 March 2013.
- Jump up^ “…vulgar are the means of livelihood of all hired workmen whom we pay for mere manual labour, not for artistic skill; for in their case the very wage they receive is a pledge of their slavery.” – De Officiis 
- Jump up^ “As long as politics is the shadow cast on society by big business, the attenuation of the shadow will not change the substance”, in “The Need for a New Party” (1931), Later Works 6, p163
- ^ Jump up to:a b Ferguson 1995.
- Jump up^ “House of Reps seals ‘death’ of WorkChoices”. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 2008-03-19. Retrieved 2014-02-15.
- ^ Jump up to:a b c d “Brown v. J. Kaz, Inc., No. 08-2713 (3d Cir. Sept. 11, 2009)”. Retrieved 2010-01-23.
- Jump up^ “Contract types and employer responsibilities”. gov.uk. Retrieved 21 May 2014.
- Jump up^ 26 U.S.C. § 3401(c)
- Jump up^ United States v. Latham, 754 F.2d 747, 750 (7th Cir. 1985).
- Jump up^ “Termination”. United States Department of Labor. Retrieved 27 September 2012.
- Jump up^ Lag om anställningsskydd (1982:80)
- ^ Jump up to:a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Claire Melamed, Renate Hartwig and Ursula Grant 2011. Jobs, growth and poverty: what do we know, what don’t we know, what should we know? Archived May 20, 2011, at the Wayback Machine. London: Overseas Development Institute
- ^ Jump up to:a b “Young Worker Safety and Health”. www.cdc.gov. CDC NIOSH Workplace Safety and Health Topic. Retrieved 2015-06-15.
- ^ Jump up to:a b c d “Work-Related Motor Vehicle Crashes” (PDF). NIOSH Publication 2013-153. NIOSH. September 2013.
- Jump up^ “Work-Related Motor Vehicle Crashes: Preventing Injury to Young Drivers” (PDF). NIOSH Publication 2013-152. NIOSH. September 2013.
- Jump up^ Joseph Holden, Youth employment programmes – What can be learnt from international experience with youth employment programmes? Economic and private sector professional evidence and applied knowledge services https://partnerplatform.org/?fza26891
- Jump up^ Chosewood, L. Casey (May 3, 2011). “When It Comes to Work, How Old Is Too Old?”. NIOSH: Workplace Safety and Health. Medscape and NIOSH.
- Jump up^ Baert, Stijn (February 20, 2016). “Getting Grey Hairs in the Labour Market: An Alternative Experiment on Age Discrimination”. Journal of Economic Psychology. 57: 86–101. doi:10.1016/j.joep.2016.10.002.
- Jump up^ Kaufman, Bruce E. (2004) Theoretical Perspectives on Work and the Employment Relationship, Industrial Relations Research Association.
- Jump up^ Fox, Alan (1974) Beyond Contract: Work, Power and Trust Relations, Farber and Farber.
- Jump up^ Budd, John W. and Bhave, Devasheesh (2008) “Values, Ideologies, and Frames of Reference in Industrial Relations,” in Sage Handbook of Industrial Relations, Sage.
- Jump up^ Befort, Stephen F. and Budd, John W. (2009) Invisible Hands, Invisible Objectives: Bringing Workplace Law and Public Policy Into Focus, Stanford University Press.
- Jump up^ Budd, John W. and Bhave, Devasheesh (2010) “The Employment Relationship,” in Sage Handbook of Handbook of Human Resource Management, Sage.
- ^ Jump up to:a b c Yurendra Basnett and Ritwika Sen, What do empirical studies say about economic growth and job creation in developing countries? Economic and private sector professional evidence and applied knowledge services https://partnerplatform.org/?7ljwndv4
- Jump up^ Blattman, Christopher; Annan, Jeannie (2016-02-01). “Can Employment Reduce Lawlessness and Rebellion? A Field Experiment with High-Risk Men in a Fragile State”. American Political Science Review. 110 (1): 1–17. ISSN 0003-0554. doi:10.1017/S0003055415000520.
- ^ Jump up to:a b c d e f Budd, John W. (2004) Employment with a Human Face: Balancing Efficiency, Equity, and Voice, Cornell University Press.
- ^ Jump up to:a b c Rayasam, Renuka (24 April 2008). “Why Workplace Democracy Can Be Good Business”. U.S. News & World Report. Retrieved 16 August 2010.
- Jump up^ Wolff, Richard D. (2012). Democracy at Work: A Cure for Capitalism. Haymarket Books. ISBN 978-1608462476.