Effective altruism

Effective altruism is a philosophy and social movement that applies to the most effective ways to benefit others. [1] Effective altruism encourages individuals to consider all causes and actions and to act in the way that brings about the greatest positive impact, based on their values. [2] It is the broad, evidence-based approach that distinguishes altruism from traditional altruism or charity . [3]

While a substantial proportion of effective nonprofit sector , the philosophy of effective altruism has been used in the past few years, . [4] Notable people associated with the movement include philosopher Peter Singer , [5]Facebook cofounder Dustin Moskovitz , [6] Oxford based philosopher William MacAskill , [7] researcher Toby Ord [8] and professional poker player Liv Boeree . [9] [10]


Effective altruism differs from other philanthropic practices because of its emphasis on quantitatively comparing charitable causes and interventions with the goal of maximizing certain moral values. In this way it is similar to consequentialism , which some leaders of the explicitly endorse movement. [11] The views of the philosopher Peter Singer in particular helped give rise to the actual altruist movement. [12] Singer’s book The Life You Can Save argued for the basic philosophy of effective giving, claiming that people have a moral imperative to donate more because of the existence of extreme poverty. In the book, Singer argued that people should use charitable evaluators to determine how to make their most effective donations. Singer personally gives a third of his income to charity. [13]

Cause prioritization

In this paper, we report on the impact of climate change on climate change. Effective altruists, however, seek to compare the relative importance of different causes, a concept that is usually referred to as cause neutrality. [14] [15] [16] [17]

Effective altruists choose the highest priority causes. They then focus their attention on interventions in high priority areas. Several organizations are performing cause prioritization research. [2] [18] [19]

Some Priorities of effective altruists include poverty in the Developing World , The Suffering of animals in factory farms , and Risks to civilization, humans and planet Earth . [4] [14] [16]


Effective altruistic organizations that claim to be more effective than others, either because they do not achieve their goals or because of variability in the cost of achieving those goals. [20] [21] When possible, they seek to identify charities that are highly cost-effective , meaning that they achieve a broad benefit for a given amount of money. [7] For example, they select health interventions on the basis of their impact as measured by lives saved per dollar, quality-adjusted life years (QALY) saved per dollar, or disability-adjusted life years (DALY) averted per dollar. This measure of disease burden is expressed as the number of years lost due to ill-health, disability or early death.

Effective altruism organizations use randomized controlled trials as a primary form of evidence, [7] [22] as they are often considered to be the highest level of strong evidence in healthcare research. [23] They also make philanthropic recommendations for charities on the basis of their current funding. [24] [25]


Effective altruists reject the view that some lives are intrinsically more valuable than others. For example, they believe that a person in a country has equal value. [12] In the 1972 essay ‘ Famine, Affluence, and Morality ‘, Peter Singer wrote:

Bengali whose name I shall never know, ten thousand miles away. … The moral point of view requires us to look beyond the interests of our own society. Previously …, this may hardly have been feasible, but it is quite feasible now. From the moral point of view, the prevention of the starvation of millions of people outside our society must be considered at least as pressing as the upholding of property norms within our society. [26]

In addition, many effective altruists think that future generations have equal moral value to currently existing people, so they focus on reducing existential risks to humanity . Others believe que la interests of non-human animals shoulds be accorded la même moral weight have similar interests of humans and work to prevent prevention The Suffering of animals, [22] Such As Those raised in factory farms. [27]

Counterfactual reasoning

Effective altruists argue that counterfactual reasoning is important to determine which course of action maximizes positive impact. Many people assume that the best way to help people is through direct methods, [28] [29]but since charities and social service providers usually find people willing to work for them, Effective altruists compare the amount of good somebody does in a conventional altruistic career to how much good would have been had the next best candidate been hired for the position. According to this reasoning, the impact of a career may be smaller than it appears. [30]

Room for more funding

Effective altruists avoid donating to organizations that have no “room for more funding” – those who face bottlenecks other than money which prevent them from spending the funds they have accumulated or are expected to receive. [31] For example, a medical charity could not be able to provide the medical supplies it is capable of purchasing, or it might already be serving all of the potential patients in its market. There are Many other organisms qui do -have room for more funding, so giving to One of Those INSTEAD Would Produce real-world improvements.



Effective altruism encourages significant charitable donation. Some believe it is a moral duty to alleviate suffering through donations if the purchases that one forgoes to donate do not cause comparable suffering to oneself, [26] leading some of them to lead a frugal lifestyle in order to give Their society. [32] Advocacy focuses on increasing the amount of people who donate or identify nonprofits that meet the criteria of effective altruism.

Giving What We Can (GWWC) is an organization that hosts a community of individuals who have pledged to donate at least 10% of their income for the remainder of their lives to the causes that they believe are the most effective. GWWC was founded in November 2009 by Toby Ord , a moral philosopher at Oxford University , who lives on £ 18,000 ($ 27,000) per year and donates the remainder of his income to charity. [33] As of 2017, more than 2500 individuals took the pledge. [34] [35]

The Founders Pledge is a similar system run by the nonprofit Founders Forum for Good where startup founders make a legally binding commitment to donate at least 2% of their personal proceeds to charity in the event that they sell their business. [36] [37] [38] By May 2016, one year after launch, 430 entrepreneurs had pledged, for an estimated total value of $ 134 million based on the founders ‘equity and the companies’ valuation. [39]

Career selection

Effective altruists argue that selection of one’s career is an important determinant of the amount of good one does, [15] both directly and indirectly through the money earned based on the career ). [40]

80,000 Hours is an Oxford , UK -based organization in the effective altruism movement that writes articles and leads one-on-one coaching to help people find careers with a positive social impact. [41] It considers indirect methods of altruistic employment, such as earning a high salary in a career and directing, such as scientific research. It was co-founded by William MacAskill , [42] who is also its current president. [43]

The earning to give strategy has been proposed as a possible strategy for effective altruists. This strategy involves choosing to work in high-paying careers with the explicit goal of donating large sums of money to charity. [44] Benjamin Todd and William MacAskill have argued that the marginal impact of one’s potentially unethical actions in such a lucrative career would be small since someone else would have done them regardless, while the impact of donations would be wide. [40]

This is a practice that has attracted controversy. David Brooks , a columnist for The New York Times , criticized effective altruists who adopt the strategy. He wrote that most people who work in finance and other high-paying industries value money for selfish reasons and that being surrounded by these people will cause effective altruistic to become less altruistic. [45] Some effective altruists acknowledge this possibility and want to reduce the risk through online communities, public pledges, and donations through donor-advised funds . [46] In The Week , Pascal-Emmanuel Gobry argued that taking “unethical” job is fundamentally immoral, no matter the reason. [47]

Cause priorities

Effective altruism aspires to be cause neutral, meaning it is in principle open to helping in whichever areas will do the most good. [16] [17] [48] In practice, people in the effective altruist movement-have prioritized The Following three focus areas: [2] [22] [49] [50]

Global poverty alleviation

Global poverty alleviation has been a focus of some of the earliest and most prominent organizations associated with effective altruism.

Charity evaluator GiveWell was founded by Holden Karnofsky and Elie Hassenfeld in 2007 to address poverty and is currently a part of the effective altruism movement. [51] [52] GiveWell HAS argued que la value of donations is greatest for international poverty alleviation and Developing world health issues, [53] [21] and Its Leading recommendations-have-been in contention domains [54] [55] ( Against Malaria Foundation , Schistosomiasis Control Initiative , Deworm the World Initiative , and (earlier) VillageReach in global health, and GiveDirectly for direct unconditional cash transfers.

Giving What We Can Given to the Alleviation of Global Poverty [56] and GiveWell . [57]

The organization The Life You Can Save, which originated from the book by the same name , also focuses on global poverty. [58]

While much of the initial focus of effective altruism was on direct strategies such as health care interventions and cash transfers, there was also more interest in more systematic social, economic, and political reforms. [59] In September 2011, GiveWell announced GiveWell Labs, [60] which was later renamed as the ” Open Philanthropy Project “, for further exploration of speculative causes. It is a collaboration between GiveWell and Good Ventures , a philanthropic foundation founded by Facebook co-founder Dustin Moskovitz and his wife Cari Tuna. [61] [62] [63]

Animal welfare

Many effective altruists believe that animal suffering should be a major priority and that, at the current margin, there are cost-effective ways of accomplishing this. [64] Peter Singer quotes estimates by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the British organization Fishcount according to which 60 billion land animals are slaughtered and between 1 and 2,7 trillion individual fish are killed each year for human consumption. [65] [66] [67] He argues that effective animal welfare altruists should prioritize over farming over overfunded causes such as pet welfare. [13] Singer also argues that, if farm animals such as chickens are assigned even a modicum of consciousness, To reduce factory farming (for example, by reducing global consumption) could be an even more underfunded and cost-effective way of reducing current global suffering than human poverty reduction. [68] Philosophically, wild animal suffering may be an additional moral concern for effective altruists. [69]

Animal Charity Evaluators (ACE, formerly called Effective Animal Activism) are an organization connected with the movement that evaluates and compares various animal charities based on their cost-effectiveness and transparency, especially those that are tackling factory farming . [70] [71] Faunalytics (formerly the Humane Research Council) is a loosely affiliated organization with the movements that lead to independent research on important animal welfare topics, provides resources for advocates and donors, and works with animal protection organizations to evaluate their work.

Far and global catastrophic risks

Some effective altruists believe that the future is extremely important. Specifically they believe that the total value of any meaningful metric (wealth, potential for suffering, potential for happiness, etc.) summed up over future generations, far exceeds the value for people living today. [2] [72] [73] In particular, the importance of addressing existential risks such as the dangers associated with biotechnology and advanced artificial intelligenceis often highlighted and the subject of active research.

Some organizations that work actively on research and advocacy to improve the future, and have connections with the effective altruist movement, are the Future of Humanity Institute , Center for the Existential Risk and Future of Life Institute . [74] In addition, the Machine Intelligence Research Institute is focused on the more narrow mission of aligning advanced artificial intelligence. [75] [76]

History as a social movement

The ideas behind effective altruism, such as consequentialism , have been present in practical ethics for a long time and have been reflected in the writings of philosophers such as Peter Singer [12] and Peter Unger . A basic argument for altruism was defined in Singer’s 1972 paper ” Famine, Affluence, and Morality “, in which he argued that ”

If it is not possible to do so, then it is necessary to do so. [26]

However, the movement identifying with the name ‘actual altruism’ has only come into being in the late 2000s, [77] centered around such organizations Giving What We Can.

Effective altruism conferences have been held since 2013. [27] [78] In 2015, Peter Singer published The Most Good You Can Do , a book on effective altruism. The book describes the philosophy and social movement of effective altruism and argues in favor of it. [13] In the same year William MacAskill published his book Doing Good Better: How Effective Altruism Can Help You Make a Difference which helps to further popularize the movement. [79] [80] [81]


David Brooks has been questioning whether children in distant countries should be treated as having equal moral values ​​to nearby children. He claims that morality should be “internally ennobling”. [45] Pascal-Emmanuel Gobry warns about the “measurement problem”, stating in some areas, such as medical research, or helping to reform third-world governance ” Effectiveness experiments and risk being undervalued by the effective altruism movement. [47] In the Stanford Social Innovation Review , Ken Berger and Robert Penna of Charity Navigator condemned effective altruism’s practice of “weighing causes and benefits against one another” Calling this “moralistic, in the worst sense of the word”. [82]

In Jacobin Magazine, Mathew Snow argues that effective altruism “implores individuals to use their money to provide necessities for those who desperately need them, but says nothing about the system that determines how those necessities are produced and distributed in the first place.” [83] However, Joshua Kissel argues that anti-capitalism is compatible with effective altruism in theory, while adding that effective altruists and anti-capitalists have to sympathize with each other. [48]

Notes and references

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  4. ^ Jump up to:a b MacAskill, William (2015). Doing Good Better . Avery. ISBN  978-1592409105 .
  5. Jump up^ Walters, Helen. “Peter Singer’s talk about visualization” . TED Blog .
  6. Jump up^ “Cari Tuna and Dustin Moskovitz: Young Silicon Valley billionaires pioneer new approach to philanthropy” . The Washington Post. December 26, 2014.
  7. ^ Jump up to:a b c Thompson, Derek (June 15, 2015). “The Greatest Good”. The Atlantic.
  8. Jump up^ “Peter Singer:” The Most Good You Can Do “” Talks at Google ” . YouTube .
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  83. Jump up^ Snow, Mathew (August

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