career is an individual’s journey through learning, work and other aspects of life. There are a number of ways to define a career and the term is used in a variety of ways.

Definitions and etymology

The word career is defined by the Oxford English Dictionary as a person ‘s “course or progress through life”. In this occupation, the student will be able to demonstrate his / Career is also a part of a career . A third way in which the term career is used to describe an occupation or occupation that involves special training or formal education, [1] and is considered to be a person’s lifework. [2] In this case “a career” is seen as a sequence of related jobs usually pursued within a single industry or sector eg ”

Historic changes in careers

For a pre-modernist notion of “career”, compare honorary curriculum .

By the late 20th century, a wide range of choices (especially in the range of potential professions ) and more widespread education has made it possible to become a career planner. The career advisor have grown up. It is also uncommon for adults in the late 20th / early 21st centuries to have dual or multiple careers , either sequentially or concurrently. Thus, professional identities have become hyphenated or hybridized to reflect this shift in work ethic. Economist Richard Florida notes this trend and more specifically among the ” creative class “.

Career management

Career management and career management. Ideas of what comprised “career management skills” are Described by the Blueprint model (in the United States, Canada, Australia, Scotland and England [3] ) [4] and the Seven C’s of Digital Career Literacy (SPECIFICALLY Relating to the Internet Skills ). [5]

Key skills include the Ability to Reflect on one’s current career, research the labor market , determine whether education is Necessary, find Openings, and make career changes.

Career choice

Further information: List of largest employers and List of occupations

According to Behling and others, an individual’s decision to join may depend on any of the three factors viz. Objective factor, subjective factor and critical contact. [6]

  • Objective factor theory assumes that the applicants are rational. The choice, therefore, is exercised after an objective assessment of the tangible benefits of the job. Factors may include salary, other benefits, location, opportunities for career advancement, etc.
  • Subjective factor theory of social and psychological factors. The status of the job, reputation of the organization and other similar factors plays an important role.
  • Critical contact theory advances the idea that a candidate’s observations while interacting with the organization plays a vital role in decision making. For example, the recruiter keeps in touch with the candidate, the promptness of response and similar factors are important. This theory is more valid with experienced professionals.

These theories assume that candidates have a free choice of employers and careers. In reality the scarcity of jobs and strong competition for desirable jobs severely skews the decision making process. In many markets, employees have been forced to accept a work permit. Additionally, Ott-Holland and colleagues found that culture can have a major influence on career choice, depending on the type of culture. [7]

When choosing a career that’s best for you, according to US News, there are multiple things to consider. Some of these include: natural talents, work style, social interaction, work-life balance, whether or not you are in the public eye, dealing with stress or not, You want to make. If you are looking for a career in this field, then this is the place for you. In today’s workplace, choosing a career does not necessarily mean you have to stick with that line of work for your entire life. Make a smart decision, and plan to re-evaluate down the line based on your long-term objectives. [8]

Career (occupation) changing

Changing occupation is an important aspect of career and management. Over a lifetime, both the individual and the labor market will change; It is to be expected that many people will change occupations during their lives. Data collected by the US Bureau of Labor Statistics through the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth in 1979 showed that individuals between the ages of 18 and 38 will hold more than 10 jobs. [9]

A survey conducted by Right Management [10] suggests the following reasons for career change.

  • The downsizing or the restructuring of an organization (54%).
  • New challenges or opportunities that arise (30%).
  • Poor or ineffective leadership (25%).
  • Having a poor relationship with a manager (22%).
  • For the improvement of work / life balance (21%).
  • Contributions are not being recognized (21%).
  • For better compensation and benefits (18%),
  • For better alignment with personal and organizational values ​​(17%).
  • Personal capacities and capabilities are not a good fit with an organization (16%).
  • The financial instability of an organization (13%).
  • An organization relocated (12%).

According to an article on, one of three people currently employed (as of 2008) spends about an hour per day searching for another position. [10]

Career success

Career Success Stories. It refers to the extent and ways in which an individual can be described as successful in his or her working life so far. [11]

Traditionally, career success has always been. (Eg the amount a person earns) or in relative terms (eg the amount a person earns compared with their starting salary). Earnings and status are examples of objective criteria of success, where “objective” means that they can be factually verified, and are not purely a matter of opinion.

Many observers argue that careers are the predictable thing they have been, due to the fast pace of economic and technological change. [12] This means that career management is more obviously the responsibility of the individual rather than his or her employing organization, because a “job for life” is a thing of the past. This is a very good job. [13] These include job satisfaction, career satisfaction, work-life balance, a sense of personal achievement, and attaining work that is consistent with one’s personal values. A person’s assessment of his or her career is likely to be influenced by social comparisons , such as how well family members, friends, Or contemporaries at school or college have done. [14]

The amount and type of career success of a person. [15] These include social capital ( social capital ), human capital (demonstrable abilities, experiences and qualifications), economic capital (money and other material resources) , And cultural capital (having skills, attitudes or general know-how to operate in a particular social context). [16]

Career support

There is a range of different educational, counseling, and human resource management interventions that can support individuals to develop and manage their careers. Career support is commonly offered when people are in education, when they are transitioning to the labor market, when they are changing career, during periods of unemployment, and during transition to retirement. Support may be offered by career professionals, other professionals or by non-professionals such as family and friends. Professional career guidance as a career advancement in the OECD definition of career guidance:

The activities may take place on an individual or group basis, and may be face-to-face or at a distance (including helplines and web-based services). They include career information programs (in print, ICT-based and other forms), assessment and self-assessment tools, counseling interviews, career education programs, taster Programs [to sample options before choosing them], work programs, and transition services. ” [17]

However, the use of the term “career guidance” may also be used to describe the activities of career counselors .

Provision of career support

Career support is offered by a range of different mechanisms. Much career support is available through the Internet. There is a need for a career in the public sector. Citation needed ]

Types of career support

Key types of career support include:

  • Career information and career choices. An important sub-set of career information is a labor market information (LMI), such as salaries of various professions, employment opportunities in various professions, available training programs, and current job openings.
  • Career assessments are tests that come in a variety of forms and rely on both quantitative and qualitative methodologies. Career assessments can help individuals identify and better articulate their unique interests, personality, values, and skills. Some of the skills and competences of a manager are required. [18] Career assessments can also provide a window of potential opportunities by helping individuals discover the tasks, experience, education and training that is needed for a career. [19] Career counselors , executive coaches , educational institutions, career development centers,
  • Career counseling , career development, and career development. Career counseling is a professional career development and career development consulting firm.
  • Career education and training for the elderly. There is a strong tradition of career education in schools, [20] but also a career education. A commonly used framework for careers education is DOTS which stands for decision learning, Opportunity awareness, transition learning and self-awareness. [21] Oftentimes, higher education is thought of as being too narrow or too researched based and lacking of a deeper understanding of the material to develop the necessary skills for a certain career. [22]

Some 17.8% per worker. However, beyond years of schooling, beyond 9 or 10 years, have little effect on worker’s wages. In summary, better educated, bigger benefits. In 2010, 90% of the Workforce had a high school diploma, 64% had some college, and 34% had at least a bachelor’s degree. [23]

The common problem that people may encounter when trying to achieve an education for a career is the cost. The school has a lot to do with schooling. The benefits of schooling can differ greatly depending on the degree (or certification) obtained, the programs the school may offer, and the ranking of the school. Sometimes, colleges provide students more with just education to prepare for careers. It is not uncommon for colleges to provide pathways and support straight into the workforce the students may desire. [24]

Much career support is delivered face-to-face. [5]

See also

  • Job satisfaction
  • Employment
  • Profession


  1. Jump up^ career. 2012. Retrieved 20120-02-10.
  2. Jump up^ career. The Free Dictionary. 2013. Retrieved 2012-02-10.
  3. Jump up^ Careers Blueprint. Excellence Gateway. Retrieved on 2014-01-11.
  4. Jump up^ Hooley, T .; Watts, AG; Sultana, RG; Neary, S. (2013). “The ‘blueprint’ framework for career management skills: a critical exploration”. British Journal of Guidance & Counseling . 41 (2): 117. doi :10.1080 / 03069885.2012.713908 .
  5. ^ Jump up to:b Hooley, T. (2012). “How the internet is changing the career path: framing the relationship between career development and online technologies” (PDF) . Journal of the National Institute for Career Education and Counseling (NICEC) . 29 : 3.
  6. Jump up^ Schreuder, AMG (2006). Careers: An Organisational Perspective . p. 187. ISBN  9780702171758 .
  7. Jump up^ Ott-Holland, CJ; Huang, JL; Ryan, AM; Elizondo, F .; Wadlington, PL (October 2013). “Culture and Vocational Interests: The Moderating Role of Collectivism and Gender Egalitarianism” . Journal of Counseling Psychology . American Psychological Association. 60 (4): 569-581. Doi : 10.1037 / a0033587 . Retrieved 31 January 2014 .
  8. Jump up^ Tim Tyrell-Smith. “How to Choose a Career That’s Best for You” . US News & World Report .
  9. Jump up^ “National Longitudinal Surveys”. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Retrieved 2012-02-10.
  10. ^ Jump up to:b Cullen, LT (28 May 2008) “Top reasons why we change jobs” . Time .
  11. Jump up^ Gunz and Heslin (2005). “Reconceptualising career success”. Journal of Organizational Behavior . 26: 105-111.
  12. Jump up^ Inkson, Dries and Arnold (2014). Understanding Careers, 2nd edition . London: Wise. ISBN  978-1-44628-291-5 .
  13. Jump up^ Hall and Chandler (2005). “Psychological success: When the career is a calling.” Journal of Organizational Behavior . 26 : 155-176.
  14. Jump up^ Heslin, Peter (2003). “Self and other referent criteria of career success”. Journal of Career Assessment . 11 : 262-286.
  15. Jump up^ Arnold, Randall; et al. (2016). Work Psychology, 6th edition . Harlow: Pearson. pp. 555-558.
  16. Jump up^ Ng and Feldman (2014). “Subjective career success: A meta-analytic review”. Journal of Vocational Behavior . 85 : 169-179.
  17. Jump up^ Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development & European Commission (OECD & EC) (2004). Career Guidance: A Handbook for Policy Makers. Paris: OECD. ISBN 9264015191.
  18. Jump up^ UCDavis Human Resources. 2010. Retrieved 2012-02-10.
  19. Jump up^ “Why is a Career Assessment Important?”Success Factors. 2012. Retrieved 2012-02-10.
  20. Jump up^ Hooley, T., Marriott, J., Watts, AG and Coiffait, L. (2012). Careers 2020: Options for Future Careers in English Schools ArchivedJanuary 11, 2014, at theWayback Machine.London: Pearson.
  21. Jump up^ Law, B. & Watts, AG (1977). Schools, Careers and Community: A Study of Some Approaches to Careers Education in Schools. London: Church Information Office. ISBN 0715190296.
  22. Jump up^ Grubb, WN; Lazerson, M. (2005). “Vocationalism in Higher Education: The Triumph of Gospel Education”. The Journal of Higher Education . 76 : 1. doi : 10.1353 / jhe.2005.0007 .
  23. Jump up^ DeVol, R., Shen, I., Bedroussian, A., Zhang, N. (2013). A Matter of Degrees: The Effect of Educational Attainment on Regional Economic Prosperity. Milken Institute
  24. Jump up^ Brennan, Susan. (2013-02-13)How Colleges Should Prepare Students for the Current Economy – Yahoo Finance. Retrieved on 2014-01-11.

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