Temporary work

Temporary work or temporary employment. The employment status of a worker is limited to a certain period of time. Temporary employees are sometimes called “contractual”, “seasonal”, “interim”, “casual staff”, “outsourcing”, “freelance”; Or the word may be shortened to “time”. In Some instances, temporary, highly skilled professionals (PARTICULARLY in the white-collar worker fields, Such As law , engineering , and accounting) Refer to Themselves as consultants .

Temporary workers may work full-time or part-time on the individual situation. In Some instances, temporary workers Receive benefits (Such As health insurance ), benefits are usually only goal Given To Permanent employees as a cost-cutting measure by the use to save money. Not all temporary employees find employment through a temporary employment agency . With the rise of the Internet and ‘gig economy’ definition needed ] , Many workers are now finding short-term jobs through freelance marketplaces : a condition That Brings into being white has global market for work [1] .

temporary work agency , temp agency or temporary staffing firm finds and retains workers. Other companies, in need of short-term workers, contract with the temporary work agency to send temporary workers , or time , on assignments to the other companies. Temporary employees are also used to work with a cyclical nature, requiring frequent adjustments to staffing levels.

History

Trends in Temporary Work (US)source: DH Author, Outsourcing at Will: The Contribution of Dismissal Doctrine to the Growth of Employment Outsourcing

The staffing industry in the United States began after World War II with small agencies in urban areas employing housewives for part-time work as office workers. Over the years the advantages of having a worker and a worker in the workplace have been reduced. By 2000. [2]

There has been a great paradigm shift since the 1940s in the use of the temporary worker. Throughout the Fordist era, temporary workers made up a rather marginal proportion of the total labor force in North America . Typically, temporary workers were white women in pink collar , clerical positions that provided companies with a stop-gap solution for permanent workers who needed a leave of absence, when on vacation or in illness. [3] In contrast, in the post-Fordist period, caractérisée by neoliberalism , deindustrializationand the dismantling of the welfare state , These understandings of temporary labor began to shift. [4] In this paradigm , the idea of ​​the temporary worker is a permanent solution. [5]

Therefore, temporary workers are a permanent substitute for permanent workers on a permanent basis. In the context of today’s temporary labor force, both people and positions are temporary, and temporary agencies use the temporary worker in a systematic and planned manner as opposed to impromptu manner. [3]

Post-Fordism

As the market Began to transform from Fordism to a post-ORDER diet of capital accumulation , the social regulation of labor markets and the very kind of work Began to shift. [6]This transformation has been characterized by an economic restructuring that emphasizes flexibility within labor , labor markets , employment relationships, wages and benefits. Most governments in Western Europe started to deregulate temporary work. [7] And indeed, Global processes of neoliberalism and market rule. [8] This Greater flexibility Within labor markets is significant at the global level, PARTICULARLY Within OECD countries and liberal market economies (see liberal market economy ).

The temporary labor industry is worth over € 157 billion per year, and the largest agencies are spread across 60 nations. The biggest temporary work agencies are profitable MOST in emerging economies of the Global North , and Those That-have Undergone Market Liberalization , deregulation and (re) regulation. [9]

The desire to market flexible, adaptable temporary workers has become a driving, monetary oriented objective of the temporary work industry. This HAS Caused individual agencies to adopt practices That focus is competition with other firms, That Promote ” try before you buy ” practices and That maximize Their Ability to Produce a product: the temporary worker. Through this process, the ideal temporary worker has become widely imagined, produced and marketed by temporary agencies. [10]

Agencies

The role of a third party between client and employee. This third party, handles remuneration, work scheduling, complaints, taxes, etc. Created by the relationship between a client and a client employee. Client jobs in the United States. Client firms can also terminate an assignment and complaint about the temp. [11] [12] Work schedules are determined by assignment, which is determined by the agency and can last for an indeterminate period of time, extended to any point and cut short. [11] Because the assignments are temporary, there is little incentive to provide benefits and the pay is low in situations where there is a lot of labor flexibility. (Nurses are an exception to this is currently a shortage). [11] [12] [13] Workers can refuse assignment, but can not “create” only fill. [11]

Whether the work comes through an independent gig economy source gold Temp agency, When A temporary employee [14] Chartered to year assignment, They Receive instructions Pertaining to the job. The agency also provides information on correct work attire, work hours, wages, and which to report to. If a temporary employee arrives at a job assignment and is not satisfied with the job, he / If they choose to continue on the assignment based on these discrepancies, they will most likely lose pay and may undermine chances at other job opportunities. However, if you have any questions, please feel free to contact us. Most agencies do not require an employee to continue work if the discrepancies are enough to make it difficult for the employee to actually do the work. [15]

temporary worker may have a standard set of tests to judge the competence of the secretarial or clerical skills of an applicant. An applicant is hired on the basis of his or her scores and is placed in a database. Companies or individuals looking to hire someone temporarily contact the agency and describe the skill set they are seeking. A temporary employee is then found in the database and is contacted to see if they would be interested in taking the assignment. [15]

It is up to the temporary employee to keep in constant contact with the agency when not currently working on an assignment; By letting the agency know which they are available to work they are given priority over those who may be in the agency database who have not made it clear that they are ready and willing to take an assignment. A temp agency employee is the exclusive employee of the agency, not of the company in which they are placed (even subject to legal dispute). The temporary employee is bound by the rules and regulations of the client firm, even if they contrast with those of the company in which they are placed.

Benefits for client firms

There are a number of reasons why a firm uses temp agencies. They provide employers a way to add more workers for a short term increase in the workforce. Using time to set a missing regular employee. A temp worker’s competency and value can be determined without the inflexibility of hiring a new person and seeing how they work out. Utilizing temp workers can also be a way of paying employees and the increased salaries of a regular employees. A firm can also use temp workers to vary compensation in what would normally be an illegal or impossible manner. The role of workers in the work space can also have the effects of coercing regular employees into taking more work for less pay. Additionally, temp workers are less likely to sue over mistreatment, Which permits the use of high-stress, regulated jobs. [11] [12] [13] [16]

Growth of temporary staffing

Temp agencies are a growing part of industrial economies. From 1961-1971 the number of employees sent by temporary staffing agencies increased by 16 percent. Temporary staffing industry in the 90s. The temporary staffing industry accounted for 1 out of 12 new jobs in the 90’s. [16] In 1996, $ 105 billion, worldwide, in staffing agency revenues. By 2008, $ 300 billion was generated, worldwide, in revenues for staffing agencies. [17] The Temporary Staffing Industry accounts for 16% of job growth in the US since the recession ended, even though it only accounts for 2% of all-farm jobs. [18] This growth has occurred for a number of reasons. [13] [19] A large driver of demand was in European labor market. Previously, temporary employment agencies were considered quasi-legal entities. This reputation shied potential client employers away. However, in the later half of the 20th century, it would be shift predominated by legal protections and closer relationships with primary employers. This combined with the tendency for the growth of the TSI in countries where there are strict regulations on the employment of laborers, [19] [20] This reputation shied potential client employers away. However, in the later half of the 20th century, it would be shift predominated by legal protections and closer relationships with primary employers. This combined with the tendency for the growth of the TSI in countries where there are strict regulations on the employment of laborers, [19] [20] This reputation shied potential client employers away. However, in the later half of the 20th century, it would be shift predominated by legal protections and closer relationships with primary employers. This combined with the tendency for the growth of the TSI in countries where there are strict regulations on the employment of workers, [19] [20] Growth is a major factor in the development of industrialized countries. [19] [20] Growth is a major factor in the development of industrialized countries. [19] [20]

Abuse in the temporary staffing industry

Staffing agencies are prone to improper behavior just like any other employ. [11] [17] There have been cases of some temp agencies that have created and reinforced an ethnic hierarchy that determines who gets what jobs. [12]

Time to be a “guest” and not a worker, which can lead to worker exploitation. One branch is that time has to deal with sexual harassment and are sometimes encouraged not to report it, and in some rare cases encouraged to make themselves “sexually available”.

An additional ramification of temp workers “guest” status is being at the bottom of the workplace hierarchy, which is visually identifiable on ID cards, in different colored uniforms, as well as the incentive of more provocative dress. [12] Their “guest” status often means, temp Workers are unable to access on-site workplace accommodations and are not included in meetings. [11] [12] [21]

This is all that is required to be able to make a complaint about a person who has been disqualified from receiving an appointment. . [11] Since a client is a member of the Board of Directors, (1): (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) is an incentive for agencies to find employees who are willing to go along with the conditions. [11]

Occupational Safety and Health

Temporary workers are at a high risk of being injured or killed on the job. In 2015, 829 fatal injuries (17% of all occupational fatalities) among contract workers. [22] Studies have also shown a higher burden of non-fatal occupational injuries and illnesses. [23] [24] There are many possible contributing factors to the high rates of injuries and illnesses among temporary workers. They are often inexperienced and assigned to hazardous jobs and tasks, [25] [24] [26] [27] may be reluctant to object to unsafe working conditions or to advocate for safety due to fear of job loss or other repercussions, [26] and they may lack basic knowledge and skills to protect themselves from workplace hazards due to insufficient safety training. [28] According to a joint guidance document released by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), both staffing agencies and For providing and maintaining a safe and healthy work environment for temporary workers. [29] Collaborative and interdisciplinary (eg, epidemiology, occupational psychology, organizational science, economics, law, management, sociology, Labor and safety) research and intervention efforts to protect and promote the occupational safety and health of temporary workers. [30]

Pros and cons

Pros

  • Easy-to-use and easy to use. In this sense, it could be argued that it would be easier to find work as a temporary worker. Also, in some cases, agencies will hire temporary workers without submission of a resume or an interview [31]
  • Potential for flexible hours
  • There is an opportunity to gain experience with a variety of situations and office procedures [31]
  • There are companies that do not hire these staffing services only. They are a good company to work with.
  • Try Before You Buy-Temporary staff allowing a business to ‘TRY’ a worker as part of their team and to confirm that they are the perfect fit before taking them on board long-term, if needed. Workers Direct

Cons

Workers, scholars, union organizers and activists. [32] These include:

  • Lack of control over working hours and the potential for immediate termination for refusing an assigned schedule.
  • Positions often with high turnover rates. Research suggests that selectively selected permanent employees, as well as permanent employees .
  • Lack of references as many employers of experienced job positions.
  • In the United States, the gradual replacement of workers by temporary workers resulted in millions of workers being employed in low-paid temporary jobs. [2]
  • Typically, temporary workers earn roughly a third of a permanent counterpart, receive few or no health benefits and seldom become full-time employees from their temporary positions. [31]

Legal issues

Scholars have argued that neoliberal policies have been a prominent component in the erosion of the standard employment relationship. This precarious new model of employment has greatly reduced the worker’s ability to negotiate and, in particular, with the introduction of advanced technology, which reduces the temp’s bargaining power. [34] Internet of Things -based companies such as Uber have come into conflict with authorities and workers for circumventing labor and social security obligations. [35] [36] It has been suggested that labor regulations in North America do little to address the labor market insecurities and the precarious nature of temporary labor. In many cases, legislation has done little to acknowledge or adapt to the growth of non-standard employment in Canada. [37]

In the European Union , temporary work is regulated by the Temporary Agency . [38]

See also

  • Contingent work
  • Contingent workforce
  • Day labor
  • Employment agency
  • Labour hire
  • Labor market flexibility
  • Outsourcing
  • permatemp
  • recruitment
  • Up or out
  • Zero-hour contract

References

  1. Jump up^ Graham, Mark; Hjorth, Isis; Lehdonvirta, Vili (2017-03-16). “Digital labor and development: impacts of global digital labor markets and the gig economy on worker livelihoods” . Transfer: European Review of Labor and Research . Doi : 10.1177 / 1024258916687250 .
  2. ^ Jump up to:a b Erin Hatton (January 26, 2013). “The Rise of the Permanent Temp Economy” (blog by expert) . The New York Times . Retrieved January 28, 2013 .
  3. ^ Jump up to:a b Smith, V (2008). The Good Temp . Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
  4. Jump up^ Dex, S (1997). Flexible Employment: The future of Britain’s Jobs . Ipswich Book Company Ltd.
  5. Jump up^ Vosco, LF (2000). Temporary work: the gendered rise of a precarious employment relationship . Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
  6. Jump up^ Peck, Jamie (1996). Work-place: the social regulation of labor markets. New York: Guilford Press.
  7. Jump up^ Vlandas, Tim (2013). The Politics of Temporary Work Deregulation in Europe. Politics & Society.
  8. Jump up^ Harvey, David (2005). A brief history of neoliberalism . Oxford University Press.
  9. Jump up^ Peck, Theodore, Ward, Jamie (2005). Constructing markets for temporary labor: employment liberalization and the internationalization of the staffing industry .
  10. Jump up^ Peck, Jamie (2002). Temped out? Industry rhetoric, labor regulation and economic restructuring in the temporary staffing business. Economic and Industry Democracy. p. 169.
  11. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e f g h i Rogers, Jackie (1997). ” ” Hey, Why Do not You Wear a Skirt Shorter? “: Structural Vulnerability and the Organization of Temporary Clerical Sexual Harassment in Employment. ” . ” Gender and Society (11.2): 215-237.
  12. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e f Allen, Nicholas (2010). “EXPLORING THE INLAND EMPIRE: Life, Work, and Injustice in Southern California’s Retail Fortress.” New Labor Forum . 19 (2): 36-43.
  13. ^ Jump up to:a b c Houserman, Susan (2003). “The Role of Temporary Agency Employment in Tight Labor Markets.” Industrial and Labor Relations Review . 57 (1): 105-127.
  14. Jump up^ “Pixel & Dimed On (Getting) Getting By in the Gig Economy” .
  15. ^ Jump up to:a b “What is an employment agency or Temp agency?” .
  16. ^ Jump up to:a b Theodore, Nik (2002). “The Temporary Staffing Industry: Growth Imperatives and Limits to Contingency.” Economic Geography . 78 (4): 463-493.
  17. ^ Jump up to:a b Coe; M., Neil; Johns, Jennifer; Ward, Kevin. “Help Wanted.” Foreign Policy .
  18. Jump up^ “The Climb Continues – American Staffing Association” . American Staffing Association.
  19. ^ Jump up to:a b Neugart, Michael (2006). “The Emergence of Temporary Work Agencies”. Oxford Economic Papers . 58 (1): 136-156.
  20. Jump up^ Shire ,, Karen (2009). “Temporary Work in Coordinated Market Economics: Evidence from Front-Line Service Workplaces.” Industrial and Labor Relations . 62 (4): 602-617.
  21. Jump up^ Fryer, Alex. “Temporary Fix At Microsoft? – Company Fights Lawsuit By Further Separating Work Forces” . The Seattle Times . The Seattle Times . Retrieved July 21, 2015 .
  22. Jump up^ https://www.bls.gov/news.release/archives/cfoi_09172015.pdf
  23. Jump up^ Virtanen, Marianna; Kivimäki, Mika; Joensuu, Matti; Virtanen, Pekka; Elovainio, Marko; Vahtera, Jussi (2005-06-01). “Temporary employment and health: a review” . International Journal of Epidemiology . 34 (3): 610-622. ISSN  0300-5771 . Doi :10.1093 / ije / dyi024 .
  24. ^ Jump up to:a b Benavides, FG; Benach, J .; Muntaner, C .; Delclos, GL; Catot, N .; Amable, M. (2006-06-01). “Associations between temporary employment and occupational injury: what are the mechanisms?” . Occupational and Environmental Medicine . 63(6): 416-421. ISSN  1351-0711 . PMC  2078100  . PMID  16497853 . Doi : 10.1136 / oem.2005.022301 .
  25. Jump up^ Foley, Michael; Ruser, John; Shor, Glenn; Shuford, Harry; Sygnatur, Eric (2014-07-01). “Contingent workers: Workers’ compensation data analysis strategies and limitations” . American Journal of Industrial Medicine . 57 (7): 764-775. ISSN  1097-0274 . Doi : 10.1002 / ajim.22302 .
  26. ^ Jump up to:a b Boden L Spieler EA, Wagner G. 2016. The changing structure of work: Implications for workplace safety and health in the US. United States Department of Labor / Occupational Safety and Health Administration.
  27. Jump up^ Breslin, FC; Smith, P. (2006-01-01). “Trial by fire: a multivariate examination of the relationship between job tenure and work injuries” . Occupational and Environmental Medicine . 63 (1): 27-32. ISSN  1351-0711 . PMC  2078031  . PMID  16361402. Doi : 10.1136 / oem.2005.021006 .
  28. Jump up^ Cummings, Kristin J .; Kreiss, Kathleen (2008-01-30). “Contingent Workers and Contingent Health: Risks of a Modern Economy” . JAMA . 299 (4): 448-450. ISSN  0098-7484 . Doi :10.1001 / jama.299.4.448 .
  29. Jump up^ “CDC – NIOSH Publications and Products – Recommended Practices, Protecting Temporary Workers (2014-139)” . Www.cdc.gov . Retrieved 2017-03-08 .
  30. Jump up^ Howard, John (2017-01-01). “Nonstandard work arrangements and worker health and safety” . American Journal of Industrial Medicine . 60 (1): 1-10. ISSN  1097-0274 . Doi : 10.1002 / ajim.22669 .
  31. ^ Jump up to:a b c Manero, Conney. “The Pros and Cons of Temporary Work” .
  32. Jump up^ Mark Graham and Joe Shaw (10 July 2017). “Towards a Fairer Gig Economy” . Meatspacepress.org . Meatspace Press.
  33. Jump up^ Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago, Manufacturing Plants’ Use of Temporary Workers: An Analysis Using Census Micro Data , February 2010
  34. Jump up^ Rurup, Bert (1997). Work of the future: Global Perspectives . Australia: Allen & Unwin Publishing. pp. Chapter 6.
  35. Jump up^ James Bloodworth (2016-10-31). “Uber’s vision of a gig economy does not only exploit workers – it harms us all” . International Business Times.
  36. Jump up^ Alex Rosenblatt (2016-11-17). “What Motivates Gig Economy Workers” . Harvard Business Review.
  37. Jump up^ Vosco, L (2004). Challenging the market: the struggle to regulate work and income . Montreal & Kingston: McGill-Queen’s University Press. pp. Chapter 1.
  38. Jump up^ Directive 2008/104 / EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 19 November 2008 on temporary agency work,2008/104 / EC.

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