Iron rice bowl

“Iron rice bowl” ( simplified Chinese : 铁饭碗 ; traditional Chinese : 鐵飯碗 ; pinyin : Tie fàn wǎn ) is a Chinese term used to Refer to an occupation with guaranteed job security , as well as steady income and benefits. [1] The Chinese term can not be compared to the similar. Traditionally, people considered to have iron rice bowls include military personnel, members of the civil service , as well as employees of various state run enterprises through the mechanism of the work unit .

Because the “Iron Rice Bowl” guaranteed a stable standard of living regardless of the amount of effort made by the worker, the term is sometimes used to describe unmotivated and / or unproductive workers. Citation needed ]

Recent moves at cutting benefits and privatization of various state run businesses in Taiwan as the Taiwan Railway Administration and China Airlines have led in their industries to believe that their iron rice bowls are in jeopardy, and has led to strikes (and threats thereof) , As well as being the subject of much political debate.

Origin

The origin of the term “iron rice bowl” cam from jǐ Yun ‘s diary notes of the Thatched Abode of Close Observations ( simplified Chinese : 阅微草堂笔记 ; traditional Chinese : 閱微草堂筆記 ; pinyin : Yuewei cǎotáng bǐjì ) A beautiful maid works in a squire’s home. One day, the maid breaks a bowl, but the squire does not punish her because of her beauty. After that, the maid breaks more and more bowls. In response, the squire decides to change all of the bowls to iron bowls. The maid does not need to work, but she still gets paid. [3] Therefore, The “iron rice bowl” is described as a stable or even a life-long occupation that provides steady income and welfare, and the two key terms of the “iron rice bowl” are job entry guarantee and exit control. [4]

History

After the People’s Republic of China was established in 1949, private-owned enterprises were replaced by state-owned enterprises. Based on its needs, the government also establishes public institutions. According to Article 2 of the Interim Regulation on the Registration of Public Institutions,

The term “public institutions” as used in the present Regulation refers to the public service organizations that are established by the state organs or other organizations by the state-owned assets for the purpose of engaging in activities of education, science and technology, culture And hygiene. [5]

As a result, the recruiter and recruiter. The state not only paid employees’ salaries, but also provided social benefits, which ranged from gifts in Chinese festivals and holidays to welfare and retirement plans. [6] Because these states-run enterprises and institutions are guaranteed lifelong employment, employees were paid the same salary. There was a sentence to describe the situation: “No matter if one works or not, one gets paid thirty-six a month”. [7] Because there was no merit pay, workers were less motivated. Therefore, most sectors experienced the issue of employment redundancy. The effect of employment redundancy includes employees ‘low efficiency and employers’ high-cost. [6]

The Chinese Communist Party was supposed to provide job opportunities for everyone. [6] The CCP’s promise to the Chinese people was crucial because it was almost impossible to get the job done. [8] Due to the Japanese invasion and the Civil War directly afterwards, the Republic of China (ROC) suffered from hyperinflation from 1948-1949. Money became worthless and the basic life of the urban population became unsustainable. [6] The adoption of the iron rice provided security for people. In order to maintain, the government encourages the public sectors to recruit more employees,

Even though employment was high during the Great Leap Forward Period (1958-62), after its failure, many projects that were proposed during that period were shut down. As a result, the government needed to remove 20 percent of the labor force. The size of the iron rice bowl was shrinking. [9]

When Deng Xiaoping began his labor reforms in the People’s Republic of China in the 1980s to boost economic productivity, the government iron rice bowl jobs were some of the first to go. [10] He transformed China from a centrally-planned economy to a more free-market economy, his supporters insisted that the iron rice bowl had to be smashed if China was to modernize. During the 1978 Rural Revolution, Deng Xiaoping implicitly set an end to the iron rice bowl with the implementation of a number of economic reforms that were meant to embrace free markets. [11] These reforms included the replacement of the collective farming system with a household responsibility system, And facilities from collective organizations in order to make independent operating decisions without losing the value of unified, collective management. [12] This meant that farmers were able to benefit from their own crops, as households were able to get rid of surpluses in production. The adoption of the contract system in rural areas. [13] As households were able to get rid of surpluses in. The adoption of the contract system in rural areas. [13] As households were able to get rid of surpluses in. The adoption of the contract system in rural areas. [13]

Deng Xiaoping also introduced reforms that made prices more flexible and allowed to rise above the government-mandated price floors. In 1980, the government sought to end the system of lifelong employment for workers in state-owned enterprises by using fixed-term contracts to hire new labor, which they hoped would allow companies to refrain from renewing workers’ contracts if they were not qualified, Efficient, or capable enough. Under this new system, workers were examined and worked for six months on probationary terms, before a long-term contract for 3-5 years was negotiated. Children were also able to attend to their parents. Further changes may be made, As well as the ability to reject a job. Workers were additionally to refrain from arguing with an unsatisfied customer to the point of losing a sale, which was particularly relevant in customer-based industries, such as restaurant businesses and retail. [14]

The Chinese Constitution was amended in 1992, when Deng Xiaoping garnered the political backing and Secretary General Jiang Zemin provided the initiative. The revised constitution of the United States of America provides for a “socialist market economy” with “Chinese characteristics” that are “privately owned, individually owned, and foreign-invested” enterprises. Still, public ownership at all levels of government remains dominant. At the Fifteenth Party Congress in September 1997, Jiang announced that the reforms of medium-sized and large enterprises would be accelerated. He proposed two new initiatives: Major lay-offs (laid-off workers in China still receive minimal salaries) and divestiture of small state enterprises through mergers, leasing, selloffs, and, in some cases, bankruptcy. Since then, the government has indicated it is willing to go much further, announcing plans to sell more than 10,000 of China’s 13,000 medium-sized and broad state enterprises. [6]

As a condition for joining the World Trade Organization in 2001, China had to “break the Iron Rice bowl”, a step that was disputed by some economists. [15] [16]

Efforts to break the iron rice bowl continued in Guangdong province in 2011 with a new plan of grassroots recruitment, employment by contract, and pay based on performance. The new arrangement will be included in the 12th Five-Year Plan of the People’s Republic of China (2011-2015). [17]

Current Situation

Since the reform started in 1997, a large number of SOE workers were laid off when government workers retained job security. The reorganization of the workforce. Up to this day, government Officials, Often Known As 公务员 ; 公務員 ; Gōngwùyuán , still having the job security promised under the iron rice bowl, resulting in inefficiency and corruption. Under Xi Jinping’s presidency, there have been major efforts to eliminate corruption within the government. Xi made Xaiai , Xu Caihou , Xu , Xi , Xi ,

Problems

Some scholars claim that lifetime employment and seniority promotion systems are not the root of the problem. The key issue pertains to the contradiction between individual, collective, and state interests. The state-owned enterprises had to surrender all the profits to the state, and income was paid in accordance with a nationwide wage scale, with little relationship to the financial situation of the enterprise. Employees and workers were not able to develop a strong economic identity with their businesses since the economic performance of the enterprise had little effect on the individual’s economic gains or losses. This was one of the reasons for the general lack of work incentive in Chinese enterprises under Mao and to a large extent remains the case today. [18] Scholars argues that “The crux of the issue of workers’ incentives lay with the state-oriented ethos rather than the practice of lifetime employment.” [18]

Given the fact that the government of the United States of America has made a declaration that the Government of the United States of America has failed to fulfill its obligations. If the government fails to settle or compensate the newly unemployed, the CCP potentially faces the destruction of the social stability that has sustained its reform program, laying the groundwork for possible grassroots uprisings. [14]

Economic Impact

Scholars claim that the iron rice bowl kept China from reaching its economic potential and reaching maximum productivity, as life-long employment guarantee the managers and company owners with little to no incentive to respond to market signals. Similarly, workers who received a paycheck regardless of how much they produced, had no incentive to be more efficient and produce more output. However, this is not the only reason China fell behind economically. State enterprises lacked new technologies that were already being used in other countries, due to the high costs of providing public services and upholding the wages promised by the state. This ultimately leads to low levels of productivity, and little economic growth. Yet, the government, Which has been used for a long period of time in order to maintain the economic stability of the economy. [14]

During the time of China’s economic reform in 1978, with soft economy constraints and the requirement to implement the government’s goal of full-employment, the SOE sector had substantial redundant labor. In 1995 and 1996, around 50% of SOEs (mostly small or medium-sized) reported losses (Meng, 2003). The Asian Financial Crisis in 1997 exacerbated the situation. The Chinese government was forced to take action to improve the SOEs and to stem losses. [19]

Women and the Iron Rice Bowl

While New Marriage Law was the first legal document under the Communist Party which was supposed to be unprotected under the New Marriage Law. The establishment of the All-China Democratic Women’s Federation (ACWF) did not help to improve women’s status. In order to achieve gender equality, women needed to join the labor force as men did. However, neither the CCP nor the ACWF tried to create jobs for most women because China’s economy had not enough grown enough to be able to so many women in the labor force. As a result, even after 1949, most Chinese women in rural areas still did not join the workforce. They have at home as caretakers. Only educated women were given part-time jobs opportunities. [8]

Although the Great Leap Forward was a failure, women’s employment opportunities were improving during that period. Unrealistic quotas were set, both in industry and in agriculture. In order to achieve mass production, a larger labor force was necessary. Therefore, men were mobilized to work on mining, irrigation or the other industrial projects while agricultural work, which was traditionally taken care of by men, was left behind. [20] In order to maintain agricultural labor, women were mobilized to do the agricultural work. The CCP was founded in the mid-19th century and is now the second largest in the world. Women were liberated to a certain extent from their domestic work because the CCP needed their labor to accelerate production.

Taiwan & Hong Kong

The iron rice bowl’s position as a main feature of the government within the PRC is relatively unique for the region. The iron rice bowl was not as prolific in Taiwan as it was in mainland China. Taiwan has a state-owned enterprises (SOE’s) and more foreign-owned companies, and therefore lacks the infrastructure for a state welfare system. In this respect, Taiwan has also experienced the unrest of workers who have lost their job security and benefits, largely escaping the destabilizing effects of rapid modernization. [21]

Hong Kong has historically been a center for foreign investment and home to SOE’s. The Hong Kong market has been in the forefront of the international market. Recently, government employment in Hong Kong has been seen as less desirable because of poor job environment and lowered job requirements. There is also an increased hostility towards the management of the welfare state in Hong Kong. [22]

The popularity of the security of government jobs contrasts with the perception in other parts of China, where young students still see the bureaucracy as a promising chance for employment and upward mobility. [23]

Other uses

In the Western Society , the term has a similar use. It has been popularized by Richard Lindzen in reference to government-funded scientists and labs that, according to their conspiracy theory, use their research to justify continued government funding. Lindzen ‘s thesis is that the intrinsic link between reporting and funding provides incentives to report research results in such a way as to ensure continued funding. [24] The related term “rice bowl” often refers to a military project which is being protected in the interests of a particular department rather than wider needs. [1]

The term is also used to some extent in Singapore , [25] to form British colony where the majority of citizens are ethnically Chinese. It is also used in Korea [26] ( Hangul : 철 밥통 ; Hanja : 鐵 飯桶 ; RR : Cheolbaptong ) [27]

References

  1. ^ Jump up to:a b “bowl” . Double-Tongued Dictionary . Retrieved 2007-01-02.
  2. Jump up^ “China’s communist revolution: a glossary” . The People’s Republic at 50: Special report . BBC News . 6 October 1999.
  3. Jump up^ Yun Ji, 1798, Yuewei Hermitage, No.1.
  4. Jump up^ Ho-lup Fung, “The Making and Melting of the Iron Rice Bowl” in China 1949 to 1995, “Social Policy & Administration 35, no. 3 (July 2001): 259.
  5. Jump up^ People’s Republic of China. The Interim Regulations on the Registration and Administration of Private Non-Enterprise Units, http://www.icnl.org/research/library/files/China/InterRegsNon-Ent.pdf
  6. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e Ho-lup Fung, “The Making and Melting of the Iron Rice Bowl” in China 1949 to 1995, “Social Policy & Administration 35, no. 3 (July 2001): 258
  7. Jump up^ This sentence was translated from a Chinese proverb: 做 也 三 十六 不做 也 三 十六
  8. ^ Jump up to:a b Ho-lup Fung, “The Making and Melting of the Iron Rice Bowl” in China 1949 to 1995, “Social Policy & Administration 35, no. 3 (July 2001): 259.
  9. Jump up^  Ho-lup Fung, “The Making and Melting of the Iron Rice Bowl” in China 1949 to 1995, “Social Policy & Administration 35, no. 3 (July 2001): 264.
  10. Jump up^ [1]
  11. Jump up^  Berkowitz, Daniel, Hong Ma, and Shishichiro Nishioka. “Recasting the Iron Rice Bowl: The Reform of China’s State Owned Enterprises.” Review of Economics and Statistics, 2016, 1. doi: 10.1162 / rest_a_00637.
  12. Jump up^ “1983: Household Responsibility System.” 1983: Household Responsibility System. Accessed April 09, 2017. http://www.china.org.cn/features/60years/2009-09/16/content_18534697.htm.
  13. Jump up^ Baum, Julian. “Crack in China’s` iron rice bowl ‘. No more guaranteed employment, Peking says, in bid to boost productivity in factories. ” The Christian Science Monitor. September 24, 1986. Accessed April 29, 2017. http://www.csmonitor.com/1986/0924/ojobs.html.
  14. ^ Jump up to:a b c Hughes, Neil C. “Smashing the Iron Rice Bowl.” Foreign Affairs. January 28, 2009. Accessed April 09, 2017. https://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/asia/1998-07-01/smashing-iron-rice-bowl.
  15. Jump up^ Kim Petersen (August 18, 2003). “The Broken Iron Rice Bowl”. Dissident Voice.
  16. Jump up^ Martine Bulard (January 2006). “China breaks the iron rice bowl”. The diplomatic world.
  17. Jump up^ Zhao Chunzhe (December 6, 2011). “Civil servants hjälper ‘iron rice bowl ‘ ‘ . Chinadaily.com.cn . Retrieved December 8, 2011 .
  18. ^ Jump up to:a b Lü, Xiaobo, and Elizabeth J. Perry. Danwei the changing Chinese workplace in historical and comparative perspective. London: Routledge, 2015.
  19. Jump up^ Hui He, Feng Huang, Zheng Liu, and Dongming Zhu. Breaking The “Iron Rice Bowl” and Precautionary Savings: Evidence from Chinese State-Owned Enterprises Reform.
  20. Jump up^ Kimberley Ens Manning, “Making a Great Leap Forward? The Politics of Women’s Liberation in Maoist China.” Gender & History 18, no. 3 (November 2006): 574.
  21. Jump up^ “Breaking China’s iron rice bowl is easier said than done.” South China Morning Post. December 18, 2016. Accessed April 30, 2017. http://www.scmp.com/news/china/policies-politics/article/2055588/breaking-chinas-iron-rice-bowl-will-be-easier-said -done.
  22. Jump up^ “Ditching the iron rice bowl: Hong Kong civil service. South China Morning Post. April 13, 2016. Accessed April 30, 2017. http://www.scmp.com/news/hong-kong/article/1935775/ditching-iron-rice-bowl-alarm-rise-young-workers-quitting-hong -Kong.
  23. Jump up^ “The golden rice-bowl.” The Economist. November 24, 2012. Accessed April 30, 2017. http://www.economist.com/news/china/21567124-young-graduates-once-risk-takers-now-want-work-government-again-golden-rice -bowl.
  24. Jump up^ Richard S. Lindzen (December 1, 2004). “Climate Alarm-Where Does It Come From?” (Remarks to the George C. Marshall Institute) .
  25. Jump up^ Nicole Tan (January 2003). “Not an Iron Rice Bowl” .
  26. Jump up^ Yonhap News (March 2007). “Korean civil servants’ ‘iron rice bowl’ in jeopardy” .
  27. Jump up^ Chung Ah-young (December 2015). “Gov’t seeks to break public servants’ ‘iron rice bowl ‘ ” .

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